Saturday, December 28, 2019

Dung Beetles and Tumblebugs, Subfamily Scarabaeinae

Where would we be without dung beetles? We’d likely be buried hip deep in poop, that’s where. Dung beetles do the dirty work in our world by breaking down, burying, and consuming animal waste. True dung beetles and tumblebugs belong to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (sometimes called Coprinae). Description: The subfamily Scarabaeinae is a large insect group, so there’s quite a bit of variety in the size, color, and shape of dung beetles. Most dung beetles and tumblebugs are black, but a few more flamboyant species come in brilliant shades of green or gold. Dung beetles vary in size from about 5mm to 30mm long. Just below the frons (forehead), the dung beetle’s exoskeleton forms a rounded shield-like structure called a clypeus, which covers the mouthparts. Some male dung beetles possess impressive horns, which they use as weapons to fend off other male competitors. Even a novice observer can recognize a dung beetle by its behavior. As if by magic, dung beetles appear on fresh dung piles, and quickly begin tearing the patty apart. A single pile of elephant scat attracted 16,000 dung beetles, with 4,000 scatophiles already at work in the first 15 minutes after the poo was deposited on the ground. If you want to see a dung beetle, find yourself a fresh cow patty to observe. Dung beetles play important roles in the ecosystems in which they live. Gardeners would pay good money to have someone work manure into their soil, but dung beetles provide that service for free. As they roll their balls of poo away, they disperse seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the herbivore and wound up in its scat. Dung beetles and tumblebugs recycle nutrients and help plants thrive. And don’t forget, all those piles of poop attract other, nuisance insects, like filth flies. When dung beetles clean up quickly, they prevent many disease-carrying pests from breeding. Classification: Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ArthropodaClass - InsectaOrder - ColeopteraFamily - ScarabaeidaeSubfamily - Scarabaeinae Diet: Dung beetles feed primarily on dung, especially of herbivorous mammals, although some beetles in this group feed on carrion, fungi, or even rotting fruit. Dung beetle adults typically derive their nutrition from the liquid component of excrement, and can filter out any solid particles as they ingest it. As the dung dries out, it becomes less palatable to the beetles and they will search for a fresher source of food. Parent dung beetles provision their young with dung balls, so the developing offspring have a ready source of food when they emerge from their eggs. Dung beetle larvae can digest the drier, fiber-rich part of the dung, and use chewing mouthparts to consume it. Life Cycle: Like all beetles, dung beetles undergo a complete metamorphosis with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The mother dung beetle deposits her eggs in dung balls, which the parents skillfully bury or roll into underground tunnels. Each egg is placed in its own chamber, and will hatch within a couple of weeks. In general, dung beetle larvae will feed for about 3 months, molting through three instars before pupating inside their dung chambers. The adult will emerge from its brood mass in 1-4 weeks, and then dig its way to the soil surface. Special Behaviors: The dung beetle makes its living on piles of poop, but that doesn’t mean it’s an easy life. That scat is a veritable free-for-all of dung beetles trying to grab the nicest hunk and run. A sneaky dung beetle might lie in wait for a more ambitious beetle to do the work of rolling a nice, neat dung ball, and then dash in and steal it. It’s in the dung beetle’s best interest to retreat quickly with its poo prize, and that means it needs to roll the ball in a straight path. Should the beetle inadvertently push its dung ball in a curve, it risks winding up back in the melee, where a beetle bully can cause trouble. It’s no easy task to roll a ball of poo in a straight line, especially when you do so by pushing it from behind with your back legs, and your head down. Researchers studying dung beetles in Africa have recently shown that the beetles look to the heavens for navigational clues. The sun, moon, and even the gradual gradient of light that we call the Milky Way can help the dung beetle maintain a straight line. And each time a dung beetle encounters an obstacle – a rock, a depression in the soil, or perhaps a clump of grass – it climbs atop its dung ball, and does a little orientation dance until it figures out which way to go. Range and Distribution: Dung beetles are both abundant and diverse, with roughly 6,000 species in over 250 genera known so far. Dung beetles live on every continent except Antarctica. Sources: Ecology and Evolution of Dung Beetles, edited by Leigh W. Simmons and T. James Ridsdill-Smith.Borror and DeLong’s Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition, by Charles A. Triplehorn and Norman F. Johnson.Encyclopedia of Insects, 2nd edition, edited by Vincent H. Resh and Ring T. Carde.Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity, by Stephen A. Marshall.Scarabaeinae Overview, Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles website. Accessed May 8, 2013.

Friday, December 20, 2019

The Industrial Revolution was a great time of growth in...

The Industrial Revolution was a great time of growth in the United States. During this time in North America the eastern side of the United States is becoming overcrowded and people begin to set off in search for new land and a fresh start. Several factor contributed to both the rise and fall of railroads in the United States from the spread of westward expansion, to farmers need to stay connected to the rest of the nation, and to the start of railroad regulations agencies. In the 19th century the eastern part of North America began to become overcrowded with immigrants as well as from natural growth. This marked the time in Americas history for westward expansion and westward development. Thousands of Americans flocked to the so called†¦show more content†¦These farmers rely heavily on railroads to transport their crops from the frontier to be sold. Everything depended on the railroads without them many farmers would not get the tools they needed to provide for their families and the nation would have been disconnected. This gave the railroad companies total control of the nations wealth and also power. They controlled everything from the price they shipped items at to which town they built stations at. They would even make cities bid or get special favors to the company that built stations at the town, near the town, or even just around them. As depicted in the American Frankenstein by Frank Bellew† railroad companies became monsters th ey corrupted government officials, they bribed, and they even rigged elections for their good. It seemed like there was no way to stop these monsters from taking control of the wealth of the nation as well as the power. With no regulations to stop them it seems as if there was no end in sight. Farmers begin getting restless of the railroad monopolies; they demand the government to take action. The farmers wear in dire straits being charged exorbitant fees to ship the goods was that in turn meant little profit going towards their families. They had no choice but to pay these fees because they had no other way to transport their goods due to where they lived. The first attempt to take down the monsters was through the creation of the â€Å"Granger laws† theShow MoreRelatedThe American Industrial Revolution During The 19th Century1290 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican Industrial Revolution began in the 1700’s and ended in the 1800’s. Most people believe that the American Industrial Revolution began when Samuel Slater brought technology from Britain to America. This technology allowed America to use manufacturing to quicken production. Industrial items such as the sewing machine, river boats, trains, telegraph, and mills allowed for growth in the United Stat es. Immigrants from other countries gave the industrial growth enough workers to allow the growth toRead MoreWhat Did The Career Lives Of United States Women Change During The United?1535 Words   |  7 Pages This investigation aims to assess the question, to what extent did the career lives of United States women change during the United States’ industrial Revolution? My interest in women of the industrial revolution in the United States, because there are many turning points in the lifestyle of United States women and the Industrial Revolution appears to me to be one of the first steps in the evolution of the roles of women living in the United States. The method used to investigate this life changingRead MoreIndustrialization Of The Second Industrial Revolution1390 Words   |  6 PagesThe Second Industrial Revolution, which reached its peak during 1870 to 1914, marked a significant turning point in American history. 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It was characterized by the development of machinery, the growth of factories and the large production of manufactured goods. Between the end of the Civil War and the early twentieth century, the United States experienced one of the most significant economic technologies from Britain to the United States and founded the first U.S cotton mill in Beverly, Massachusetts. In additionRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Of The Late 1700 s And Early 1800 S1682 Words   |  7 PagesTimes of hardship and change transpired remorefully greater during the late 1700’s and early 1800’s for Americans. A period at which rapid growth and fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, and transportation. The Industrial Revolution changed peopleâ€⠄¢s way of life at which new machinery, transportation, and technology was developed. Those inventions were too advanced for workers who worked in the factories to keep up with so they had to quickly advance in theirRead Morefactors that contributed to the rise and development of sociology1511 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay serves to outline the factors that contributed to the rise of sociology and the latter`s development. In simply terms, sociology is the scientific study of the society and human behavior. The emergence of sociology traces back to the eighteenth century up to present day. Johnson (1998) suggests that in summary, the rise and development of sociology is based on political, economic, demographic, social and scientific changes. Ritzer (2008) asserts that the immediate cause for the beginningRead MoreEffects of the Industrial Revolution727 Words   |  3 PagesThe Industrial Revolution, lasting between the 18th and 19th century, profoundly affected the people of Europe, North America, and other regions of the world. The revolution produced new exciting technological innovations. As a result, the socioeconomic climate and cultural aspects of Europe and North America were altered in an unprecedented manner. Industrial opportunities also lured the population away from agrarian lifestyles to more urban populaces. The Industrial Revolution extensively changedRead MoreEssay on The First Industrial Revolution: Progressing Society1022 Words   |  5 PagesThe First Industrial Revolution: Progressing Society The First Industrial Revolution modified every aspect of daily life. According to Princeton University â€Å"Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants† (Princeton par. 6). The First Industrial Revolution brought along machines, a capitalist economy, and trade expansion. Machines increased productivity, capitalist

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Organizational Concepts Essay Sample free essay sample

Introduction: All organisations must undergo alteration at on clip or another in their life rhythm. This alteration will be felt by the direction or staff after a critical idea procedure. Some of the grounds why organisations do undergo alterations are operational and market globalism. concern internationalisation and collaborative engineering. Often the alterations are either internal or external as they are at the same time impacted on by civilization and opposition. Thus houses must be prepared in progress to cover with these alterations in order to emerge successful. In making so they need to make an environmental scan and watch out for the approaching tendencies due to external influence forces or merely internal positive enterprises and synergisms. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . There are several types of alterations that take topographic point in organisations as they impact on workers. constructions and the alteration itself. Once an organisation has set end. these will automatically be trans located to its sections. Arguably. the strongest alteration alteration will ever be felt whenever there is organisational construction realignment. Thereafter the persons will be said to hold changed when there is grounds in new behavioural features in footings of how they dispense responsibility. Individual alteration is instigated by preparations. undertaking reorganisation and work experience. Group alteration will be realized when they shift from single features to team orientations particularly in properties like quality. Structural alterations will largely emanate from the top of the organisations to sketch studies. communicating and procedure flows. There is observation that such top to bottom alterations to confront opposition. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . The thought procedure of organisation alteration: First the organisation will hold to undergo a contextual thought analysis of the alteration every bit far as the congruity with prevalent organisational civilization is concerned ; perceptual experiences of complexness and direction ; advantages of new vs. old disposal / procedure ; benefits and tangibleness ; effects on cardinal participants ; reactions and readiness. ( Clampitt A ; Berk. 2007. p. 4 ) Second the will hold to believe about the audience analysis. This will affect the existent workers who will be affected. exact impact on every group. expected axis of opposition. communicating scheme based on penchants and the dominants in the groups and squads. ( Clampitt A ; Berk. 2007. p. 7 ) . Finally there must be some idea for tactic to be used in the alteration procedure. This will include the channels that are most effectual. types of messages to be used. timing of manner of communicating. exclusions of procedure and issue schemes. the appraisal and monitoring methods of the alteration. ( Clampitt A ; Berk. 2007. p. 9 ) Internal Beginnings of Change Concepts: These are the alterations that take topographic point internally and may be situationally active. semi active or seasonally hibernating. The first type is theproficient production procedurewhich causes alterations to the production procedure flows. versions to new engineerings. and conformity to quality reappraisal criterions. It will impact the manner staff are to be skilled and adaptative. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . The 2nd type of internal alteration procedure is thepolitical procedure. This will hold impact on the organization’s construction. as they define the different coverage degrees from general workers. supervisors. forepersons. in-between directors. senior directors. managers. CEO. Company Chairpersons and Board of Governors. Political alteration procedure can besides be kick stated from clip of struggles such as workers work stoppage or labour brotherhood incidences. Finally the can besides go on whenever they is alteration of top leading in the organisation. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . The 3rd type of organisational alteration is the organisationalcivilization. This may exceed to the organisational value. norms and much often whenever there are new members in the socialisation like the instance of amalgamations and acquisitions. It is worthy to observe that such alterations will frequently non go on rapidly due to the magnitude of the job or unnoticed internal force per unit area. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Internal causes of alteration should be good planned and all members should be adequately informed of the chance and stairss to be involved. The deduction is that directors must be after by get downing with strategic meeting. Then they must utilize some theoretical accounts of procedure direction and appraisal to be able to reexamine minor alterations. The clip tabular array of the alteration may be monitored by theoretical accounts such as the Gant diagrams. These are flexible to run and scalable to minor alterations. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Therefore proficient production alterations should non take more than 3 months to implement otherwise the procedure of appraisal such as quarterly footings will be outstretched. The political alteration procedure demand to be done within 6 months as in most instances they are large programs that must be given clip to filtrate to the underside of the organisation. Finally. the organisational civilization instigated alterations need longer periods from 1 twelvemonth to 3 old ages. This is so as values and norms are take clip to internalise. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . External Beginnings of Change Concepts: Many external alterations emanate from the external environment and may be planetary in magnitude. local or regional. They may besides be intra industrial or inter industrial in nature such as the events of the 9/11 in US. The have deduction on clients and workers either at the same time or by some multiplier effects. These alterations must be embraced within the shortest clip frame possible. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . The first of such alterations is theimmediate environment. This refers to the alterations that occur in domestic competition sphere for market portion and gross. It will usually specify how the sale. selling and production will be repositioned strategically. The following alteration in the immediate environment is the population tendencies. An addition may intend an organisation have to bring forth more goods for ingestion. A lessening may intend alterations to bring forth less or by distinction or merchandises. Social tendencies may besides do alterations in the environment by specifying how organisations should alter to either specialize or distinguish their merchandises. They define alterations in gustatory sensations and penchants. Finally the authorities action and policy can besides do alterations in the immediate environment. An illustration is an infliction of 120 % levy on polyethylene boxing stuff to deter usage due to their pollution of the environment. This will do an org anisation to alter production to non expansive stuff of packaging. This may do alterations in occupations due to new accomplishments demands. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . The 2nd type of external alteration variable isgeneral environment. This may be manifested in footings of foreign competition such as an export market competition. External markets such as agricultural market do see a batch of policy and ordinance amendment and conformity means the organisation must do alterations. Social motion can besides do alterations in the general environment. These can be in the signifier of brotherhoods or labour Torahs that have been socially instigated. The may means wage alterations. work status alterations and wellness and safety amendments. The 3rd type of external alteration is the political economic motion such as the formation of trade axis like NAFTA. This calls for alterations in merchandise quality conformity and measure conformity to put quotas. Such motions may besides do alterations in monetary values free economic system. monopolistic economic system. oligopolistic economic system or duopolist economic system. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapt er 14 ) . Technology is the 4th dimension that can do alteration in the general environment. Organizations may travel to machines such as reapers and baggers if there is engineering that will do them do a economy in cost or better efficiency and quality. Professionalism has besides taken its topographic point in the general alteration thrust. Availability of more qualified staff from outside either by exiles will can for an organisational alteration if they wish to prosecute such scheme. Finally civilization contact can do a general organisation alteration. This is apparent in instances of Western state Multi National Corporations puting in foreign states. In these instances. the have to either travel native to accommodate. or workers have to follow their civilizations or achieve some intercrossed cultural alteration. Therefore all organisation must encompass alteration from internal and external forces in order to last. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Doctrines of Change Variable and Cultural Resistance to Changes. Hannan and Freeman ( 1989 ) noted that â€Å"†¦similar to evolution theory that external alteration occurs with the environment finding the constructions that can last. similar to survival for the fittest. Organizations do non really accommodate. some fail and new 1s emerge as replacings. † There are besides theories to the consequence that organisations do adapt to alterations in variable and civilizations. This suggests that T it is possible for values and behaviour to alter with civilization such that peoples behavior altering without needfully altering their values. Alternatively. there are both internal and external variables that that exist as either national or organisational civilization. These can impact an organisations civilization or may by impacted on itself. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Kluckhohn and Strodtberk came up with 6 orientations of civilization that may comprehend alterations otherwise depending on the type of displacement. Inrelation to nature. organisational workers who are in harmoniousness with the nature of work may non be acute to either alteration work procedure or maestro new engineering. Organization workers that have a pastclip orientationmay be loath to concentrate in the future orientations or even the present short term ends. Organization workers that mixed or impersonalhuman natureneither trust each other with alterations nor have evil ideas on their co-workers or superior with alterations to implement. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Onactivity orientationorganisation workers who have a civilization of being. that is basking and working for life at the minute may non be acute to alter to making actions by accomplishment and acquisition. Organizations whose relationship among people is group oriented whereby workers take duty for members of the household. web or community. may non be acute to alterations that call for individualistic accomplishments or hierarchal relationships that value society rankings. Finally on infinite orientations workers who have private infinite and care for it may happen it hard to alter to public infinite that for all or assorted infinite that at the same time combines both private and public infinite properties. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Hofstede G. ( 1980 ) . holding classified civilization harmonizing to value dimensions of Power Distance. Individualism. Uncertainty Avoidance. Masculinity and Long Term Orientation clarified that due to organization’s workers lack of cognition of the hereafter. certain state bunchs will encompass or defy alteration otherwise. Organizations in states like Latin America. Portugal. Korea. and the divided Yugoslav democracy. have the strongest opposition to alter as the have high power distance. low individuality and high uncertainness turning away. This is resistance alteration degree 4. The alteration scheme that works here is usage of power. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. p. 283. ) ; ( Hofstede. 2003. Online ) . The opposition to alter degree 3 which is strong. is found in the undermentioned states ; Japan. which has medium power distance. medium individuality and high uncertainness turning away ; Belgium and France which have high power distance. high individuality and high uncertainness turning away ; Spain. Argentina. Brazil. Greece. Turkey. Arab Countries which have high power distance. medium individuality and high uncertainness turning away ; Indonesia. Thailand. Taiwan. Iran. Pakistan. African Countries which have high power distance. low individuality and medium uncertainness turning away. The alteration scheme that is applicable here is the usage of power. use and persuasion. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. p. 283. ) ; ( Hofstede. 2003. Online ) . The opposition to alter degree 2 which is medium is found in states such as Philippines. Malaysia. India. which have high power distance. low individuality and low uncertainness turning away ; Austria and Israel which have low power distance. medium individuality and high uncertainness turning away ; Italy. Germany. Switzerland. South Africa which have medium power distance. high individuality and medium uncertainness turning away. The alteration scheme that is used here is use. persuasion and audience. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. p. 283. ) ; ( Hofstede. 2003. Online ) . The opposition to alter degree 1 is made up of Singapore. Hongkong. Jamaica. which have medium power distance. high individuality and low uncertainness turning away. The concluding opposition to alter degree 0 ( nothing ) is made up of Anglo states. Nordic states and Netherlands. These have low power distance. high individuality and low uncertainness turning away. The alteration scheme for opposition degree 1 and 0 is audience and engagement. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. p. 283. ) ; ( Hofstede. 2003. Online ) . Contextual factor of cultural that affect alteration Hall explained how persons communicate during the procedure of alteration as a factor that will find its success or failure. Therefore in the usage of either verbal or non-verbal communicating. high context civilizations will value what has been verbally said more that what is non mentioned. They will besides see who in the organisation construction make the communicating to give significance to the communicating. The opposite happens in low context civilizations where gesture and non verbal communicating have no respect. The context of communicating will hold an deduction on the embrace and opposition of organisational alterations. Therefore if a junior supervisor announced a major policy displacement in the work country. workers may defy until when a senior individual come to clear up state of affairs. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . Organizational Culture and Change Models So far. it is clear that there are many factors that influence organisational alterations. whether they are external or internal. Second these may be inter industrial or intra industrial in nature either locally or globally. Thus. due to the varied. similar and opponent position about whether leading should originate alterations. the people nearer to the alteration to get down the procedure. all organisations should alter and if new engineering and workers help in alteration. procedure of alteration scheme and velocity. many theoretical accounts have been formed to steer planetary alterations. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . a. ) Lewin’s theoretical account of alteration This uses three chief stairss to implement alterations in organisations. Step 1 is the unfreezing phase where by organisations will be expected to name the province and manner frontward by usage of internal or external tools such as audits. appraisals and direct engagement. In this instance they will be required to look beyond the current ends and aims that are in program. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Lewin. 2006. Online ) Measure 2 of this theoretical account is the motion phase which will name for existent execution or the findings from the audits and scrutinies. At this phase it is recommended that alteration should take active way of the plan or undertaking. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Lewin. 2006. Online ) Measure 3 is the refreezing phase. After the execution has been done. the alterations will necessitate to go everyday to steer the workers agendas. Stairss of measuring and ratings will be set to steer in the minor accommodation. There will be a program to consequence any new alterations that emerge or are realized by the whole procedure. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Lewin. 2006. Online ) b. ) Kotter and Schlesinger Model of Pull offing Resistance to alter. Kotter and Schlesinger ( 1979 ) came up with six methods to assist organisations pull off opposition to alter due to civilization and traditions. perceived occupation insecurity. alterations in power. the perceptual experiences of what is non known. displacements in value and norms. First. they suggested that workers in the organisation will necessitate to beeducatedon the alteration procedure with propercommunicatingso that they can back up the alteration procedure. This measure comes in ready to hand where worker either do non hold proper information or have incorrect information that is taking to rumours. This is of import in organisations that operate in opposition degree 5. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Kotter A ; Schlesinger. 1979. Online ) . Second.engagement and engagementcan besides be usage in organisation with opposition degree 4. This is applicable here where the alteration instigators themselves have deficient information on the alteration scheme. Therefore employees are involved to minimise the opposition every bit good as do them have the alterations. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Kotter A ; Schlesinger. 1979. Online ) . Third.dialogue and understandingcan be used in states that have resistance degree 3. This comes in ready to hand when non everybody is encompassing the alteration or cabals have potency of defying. At this phase it may be wise to take the parts of the alteration that are doing opposition. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Kotter A ; Schlesinger. 1979. Online ) . Fourthly.use and co-optioncoercion can be used in organisation with opposition degree 2. This is utile where old tacts are non successful and are turn outing dearly-won. Hence the resistances are meant to be co-opted by affecting them into the bulk support group even if they are inactive subscribers. Then the leader will do a determination towards alteration. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Kotter A ; Schlesinger. 1979. Online ) . Fifthly.facilitation and supportcan be used in organisations with opposition degree 1. Here. workers may be defying alteration simply due to the work accommodation issues. Finally.explicit and inexplicit coercioncan be used when urgency is required and direction have used all other methods. The workers will acquire deductions that they will lose occupations if the bash non encompass alteration. The success of these theoretical accounts will all depend on their suitableness and flexible on the international organisations as they interact with the local or regional civilization or vise verser. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) ; ( Kotter A ; Schlesinger. 1979. Online ) . Decisions with Organizational Change Theories: The Life-cycle Theories have postulated that of course all organisations do recognize many alterations in their life procedure. It states that â€Å"the developing entity has within in an implicit in signifier. logic. plan or codification that regulates the procedure of alteration and moves the entity from a given point of going toward a subsequent terminal that is prefigured in the present province. † ( Van de Ven and Poole. 1995. p. 515. ) The Teleological Theory proposes that the organisational end will ever steer the alteration way that it will follow. It states that â€Å"The entity is purposeful and adaptative ; by itself or in interaction with others ; the entity constructs an pictured terminal province. takes action to make it and monitors the advancement. † ( Van de Ven and Poole. 1995. p. 516. ) The Dialectical Theory proposes that in any organisation. alterations will ever happen because there are struggles in the externally pressured environment. It states that â€Å"Stability and alteration are explained by the mention to the balance of power between opposing entities. Struggles and adjustment that maintains the position quo between resistances produce stableness. Change occurs when the opposing values. force or events gain sufficient power to face and prosecute the position quo. † ( Van de Ven and Poole. 1995. p. 517. ) The Evolutionary Theory proposed the usage of gradual alteration with points of equilibrium. It states that â€Å"Through a uninterrupted rhythm of fluctuation. choice and keeping. fluctuations. the fresh signifiers of organisations are frequently viewed to emerge by blind or random alteration ; they merely go on. Choice of organisations occurs chiefly through the competition for scarce resources and the environment selects entities that best fit the resource base of an environmental niche. † ( Van de Ven and Poole. 1995. p. 518. ) In sum. the cultural deductions are that in any organisation. civilization will play its function in alteration. Therefore in the beginning of a alteration scheme procedure. the demands must be included. they type of alteration must be clearly outlined. It is natural to defy alteration and if decently planned. alteration will be successful. The direction must be cognizant of internal and external factors that thrust and initiate procedure alterations in every bit much as different civilization will react to the otherwise. They should besides understand that some forces that initiate alteration are beyond the organisations control and these have impact locally. ( Francesco A ; Gold. 2005. Chapter 14 ) . List OF REFERENCES Clampitt. P. G. A ; Berk. L. R. ( 2007 ) . Strategically Communicating Organizational Change. p. 1 – hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sharedservices. qld. gov. au/conference/presentations/document/callan_071107_paper. pdf. Accessed on March 14. 2008. Francesco. A. M. . and Gold B. A. . ( 2005 ) .International Organization Behavior. 2neodymiumEdition. Pearson Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River. New Jersey. Hofstede. G. ( 2003 ) .International Cultural Dimensions. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. geert-hofstede. com. Accessed on March 14. 2008. Kotter and Schlesinger ( 1979 ) .Covering with Resistance to Change Six Change Approaches. Available At hypertext transfer protocol: //www. valuebasedmanagement. net/methods_kotter_change_approaches. hypertext markup language . Accessed on March 14. 2008. Lewin. K. ( 2006. )Lewin’s Change Management Model: Understanding the Three phases of Change. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. consultpivot. com/lewin’s. htm. Accessed on March 14. 2008. Van de Ven. Andrew H. A ; Poole. Marshall S. ( 1995 ) . Explaining Development and Change in Organizations.Academy of Management reappraisal. 20 ( 3 ) July. p. 510 – 540. Clampitt. P. G. A ; Berk. L. R. ( 2007 ) . Strategically Communicating Organizational Change. p. 1 – 21. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sharedservices. qld. gov. au/conference/presentations/document/callan_071107_paper. pdf. Accessed on March 14. 2008.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

My Learned Lesson free essay sample

There I was, passing cars like they were standing still on I-94. Cars in the fast lane had to move over to let me by. I had my Valentine One radar detector and thought I would never get caught with such a dependable device, which told me how many types of radar it was sensing, what direction they were coming from, and what kind of radar or laser was detected. Suddenly, the Valentine One went crazy. I slammed the brakes and slowed to the speed limit. My friend and I figured the radar had originated on the other side of the freeway, so I resumed speeding. While passing another group of cars, I noticed a car was keeping up with me. I assumed he was either mad or he was a police officer. I casually moved over one lane, and he followed my every move. Looking in the mirror, I saw red and blue lights. We will write a custom essay sample on My Learned Lesson or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I was dead meat and feeling sick. â€Å"Do you know how fast you were going?† the officer asked. â€Å"Eighty?† I lied. â€Å"I originally clocked you at 91, but as I followed, I saw you reach 107. Were you trying to lose me?† the officer said. â€Å"No sir. That was not my intention.† At this point, I was helpless. I was done driving for a while. I had my driver’s license only two weeks and already got a six-point ticket for $280.50. When I told my parents, they were not as upset as I thought they would be. All I heard was, â€Å"We’re so disappointed in you.† They said I had to pay the ticket and enroll in a traffic safety school to get three points back. In the next four weeks, I woke up Saturday mornings to go to traffic safety school. I typically worked from 3:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. to pay for the ticket. My court appearance was embarrassing when the judge reprimanded me longer than the drunk drivers. My face turned red while I was humiliated in front of the judge and the drunks. If one breaks the law, he has to live with the consequences. As a sixteen year old, I thought bad things only happened to others, but nothing would happen to me. This incident proved me wrong. It is easy to get caught breaking the law. I am responsible and will never repeat my mistake. People make errors, but they are worthwhile if one learns from them. I am a better driver and smart enough not to put myself in situations where I could get into trouble. If I do something wrong, I will admit to it. I am not going to be the person denying something I did.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Stress Essay Example

Stress Essay Example Stress Essay Stress Essay There are four types of stress and these are the following: 1) Eustress, which occurs during strenuous activities, enthusiasm, activities wherein extreme imagination is included, inspiration, motivation, and stimulation is necessitated; this is typically experienced by those sportsmen who are about to compete; it is actually a positive stress (National.., 2006). 2) Distress, which happens when changes and adjustments are made especially if such activities are considered routine; it consequently leads to feelings of uneasiness and unfamiliarity; this is usually experienced by those who move from one place to another and those who change jobs too often (National.., 2006). 3) Hyperstress, which results when a person goes over his or her limits or what he or she can typically handle; if such happens, even little issues exceedingly irritate them, consequently, exhibiting a strong emotional response; this is typically experienced by those who are overworked (National.., 2006). There are times where I have to stay late hours over my schedule because many employees do not want to show up. This makes me very frustrated and causes my cognitive processes to be so unclear. I always have a set routine at work so this really messes with my schedule and alters what I need to get done such as school work and much needed studying. To manage these emotions I really have to breathe and think about why I am working and what is important about getting those hours. Thinking positively really helps me to get through the long aggravating hours and helps me better focus. I feel that this way is somewhat effective sometimes because I am able to get through and finish all tasks I am asked to complete no matter how aggravating. There are so many times when I am faced with situations involving my personal life, such as family issues, or even problems with financial issues. In times such as these I become very depressed and even saddened of all the problems. When trying to cope with situations like this I tend to want to be by myself and try to think of ways to make the situation better. I begin managing my budget on all my financial Issues and I also found ways to talk to others such as friends or close relatives about my problems. This helped me to better cope with my Issues and become a very effective method when dealing with situations like this. I feel that sometimes there are other ways that I can deal with my Issues but I do tend to forget about the positive and think more negatively. Everyone has emotions and some people, however may not know how to control their emotions. Whether you are dealing with anger, depression, or frustration, you always need a way to manage your feelings calmly and positively. In the future there are many ways that I can learn to manage and express my emotions. It may seem that theres nothing you can do about stress. The bills wont stop coming, there will never be more noirs In ten clay, Ana your career Ana Tamely responsibilities wall always owe demanding. But you have more control than you might think. In fact, the simple realization that youre in control of your life is the foundation of stress management. Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts, emotions, schedule, and the way you deal with problems. Some ways to manage stress and control the emotions along with them would be; learn how to say no Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your personal or professional life, taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress, avoid people who stress you out If someone consistently causes stress in your life and you cant turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with that person or end the relationship entirely, take control of your environment If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to the market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online, pare down your to-do list Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the should and the musts. Drop tasks that arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely. When expressing feelings you must accept the responsibilities for your feelings, show others that you are feeling a certain way but also show this in a positive way. Choose he best time and place to express your feelings, even if the situation is one you feel negatively about it is always best to experience those strong feelings in a way that will not affect others. Perceiving others more accurately isnt the only challenge communicators face. At times we view ourselves in a distorted way. These distorted self- perceptions can generate a wide range of feelings such as insecurity, anger, and guilt. Learning to cope and manage emotions helps everyone in the long run because you not only can think straight but you can also do better at completing tasks and also managing the constant aggravation of bills and everyday life. I have learned that it is very important to stay calm and Just breathe.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Should the Canadian Government Use Monetary and Fiscal Policy to Term Paper

Should the Canadian Government Use Monetary and Fiscal Policy to Stabilize the Economy - Term Paper Example The low inflation is desirable for it removes uncertainty in the economy and in the decision making. Low inflation rate is achieved through changes in prime interest rate by central bank of Canada time to time. Bank of Canada has set inflation target of 2 percent to be achieved in 18-24 months period. The current inflation rate is hovering around 3.4 percent. Monetary policy helps achieve this through different measures. By hiking the interest rate, the Bank of Canada would try to bring the inflation rate on its target of around 2 percent. The difficulty arises towards adjusting the size and timings of interest rate and that is where the question of using appropriate monetary policy comes into play. There are always some volatile components in the consumer price index that creates destabilizing effect time to time. For example, in the recent period the biggest volatile component has been crude oil, gasoline or diesel that keeps on fluctuating wildly throughout the year. In fact, that threatens to make the consumer index away from the target. The prices of these commodities cannot be administered by the government in the free market economy. That is where the monetary policy intervention by adjusting the interest rate comes into picture to increase or decrease the consumption to keep the inflation on target. The general price level of all services and goods in the given economy has influence on the money demand and interest rates. Higher price level increases money demand and higher money demand causes higher interest rate. Higher interest rate decreases the demand of quantity of goods and services. Inflation rate relative to the target is the indicator to judge where the demand is in relation to the supply. What Monetary Policy Cannot Influence in Long Run? The monetary policy can influence the other market variables such as investment, real output or unemployment only for short periods of time. It cannot exert influence on these parameters on sustained basis f or a long period of time as it can do on the rate of inflation. As argued by Friedman (1968), this happens because any changes in real wages or unemployment are eventually offset by adjustments of market forces in response to demand-supply dynamics of the market. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers The automatic stabilizers are equally important. In Canada, employment insurance payouts and various kinds of tax revenues fall in this category. These fiscal stabilizers such as personal income tax deducted by the employer work immediately without any time lag to bring the desired effect but insurance payouts work with some time lag. They are quite effective and helpful in dampening outputs but only partly. Against this, the monetary policy is useful to create a complete offset any change in output but that cannot be achieved immediately; it takes about 12-18 months for an effect to take place. Monetary policy and fiscal policy do not work in isolation. For example, when the government changes fiscal policy, they need to also think that how changes in fiscal policy will bring change in inflation rates. Similarly, the Bank of Canada while changing interest rates also needs to consider the changes in fiscal policy to judge the inflation and demand parameters. Conclusion Thus, the appropriate mix of the monetary and fiscal policies with clear objectives can bring about the desired economic stabilization

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

English Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

English - Essay Example The movement was caused by an unusual phenomenon, Synchronous Lateral Excitation (London Landmarks, 56). When people walk, they naturally sway a little, which in turn caused the bridge to sway with them. Given that the engineers had not installed any form of dampers, the swaying of the bridge was uncontrollable (BBC online, 2000). Synchronous lateral excitation is basically when the bridge moves laterally in conjunction with outside forces. In this case, pedestrians walking across the bridge. In order for the engineers to alleviate this movement, they needed to install a damping system. After discussion of either active or passive damping, they chose passive damping. This form of damping uses viscous dampers that are encased pistons, similar in action to the shocks of a vehicle, to absorb and transfer the movement of the bridge so that the swaying is no longer felt. These viscous dampers reduce the lateral motion. In order to reduce the vertical motion, the engineers employed tuned m ass dampers. These dampers are very simple in their technology, as they are tuned to the frequency of the inertia of the bridge, thus reducing lateral movement (Jones, 87). The engineers in this case should have taken a closer look at the mechanics of the bridge when they built it.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 16

Ethics - Essay Example For example, some organizations have sound philosophy in making the environment clean and green and for that purpose they will try to avoid as much as activities which may harm the environment. The employees must be well aware of these things in order to work in line with such policies. Training and development is also intended for making the employee capable of recognizing and respecting the dignities of other fellow employees in the organization. It will also generate loyalty towards the organization and the fellow employees. Organizations can develop only through encouraging team work and the team work principles can be taught through training and development only. In academic curriculum the employee may not learn much about the organizational setups, culture and behavior and only through training and development an employee will get better insights about such things. For example keeping confidentiality and integrity is essential at workplace which the employee may not be practiced during his/her student life. So a fresh employee may not be aware of the importance of such things and hence they need better training and development in order to customize them suitable for the organization. Team work is an essential requirement in an organizational setup. An individual can do little with his individual efforts whereas he can double his productivity when he functions as part of a team. For example, a marketing professional will get better ideas about marketing from the team members when he works as part of a team. The market forecasts and fluctuations like important information are needed for him which will be obtained easily when wok as part of a team. Ethics related to teamwork deals with â€Å"how do groups achieve justice (in the distribution of work), responsibility (in specifying tasks, assigning blame, and awarding credit), reasonableness (ensuring participation, resolving conflict, and

Friday, November 15, 2019

Processor Is The Heart Of The Computer

Processor Is The Heart Of The Computer A microprocessor or processor is the heart of the computer and it performs all the computational tasks, calculations and data processing etc. inside the computer. Microprocessor is the brain of the computer. In the computers, the most popular type of the processor is the Intel Pentium chip and the Pentium 1V is the latest chip by Intel Corporation. The microprocessors can be classified based on the following features. Computer memory stores data temporarily for rapid retrieval. When most computer users refer to the term, they are talking about the main memory of the computer. This is also called the random access memory (or RAM for short). However, memory chips of varying types are integrated into just about every electronic device you can think of, including coffee machines, microwaves, network routers, and cell phones. 2.0 Question 1 Nowadays, the cost of the computer continues to drop dramatically while the performance and capacity of the system continue to rise equally dramatically. I am going to write about the evolution of microprocessor system. I will start from the 1st microprocessor Intel 4004 to Pantium4. Intel 4004 The 4004 is the worlds first microprocessor. The 4004 was created at Intel with Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin as the lead designers. The 4004 provided a new tool to the world. Up to that time and semiconductors and ICs were built for a specific purpose. The 4004 was the first semiconductor device that provided, at the chip level, the functions of a computer. The 4004 contains the two basic architectural building blocks that are still found in todays microcomputers: the arithmetic and logic unit and the control unit. The Intel 4004 ran at a clock speed of 108 kHz and contained 2300 transistors. By the time it was in production the clock speed was increased to 500kHz and later to 740kHz. It processed data in 4 bits, but its instructions were 8 bits long. The 4004 addressed up to 1 Kb of program memory and up to 4 Kb of data memory (as separate entities). It had sixteen 4-bit (or eight 8-bit) general purpose registers, and an instruction set containing 45 instructions. The 4004 family is also referred to as the MCS-4. Intel 8008 The first 8-bit microprocessor, Intel 8008 (i8008) was released 5 months after Intel 4004. The 8008 was available in two speed grades 500 KHz and 800 KHz. Because it took the CPU from 5 to 8 cycles to execute each instruction, the effective rate of instruction execution was from 45,000 to 100,000 instructions per second for Intel 8008 and from 72,000 to 160,000 instruction per second for Intel 8088-1 These numbers assume that the CPU uses fast memory and doesnt require wait states to access the memory. Although the effective speed in instructions per second of the 8008 microprocessor sometimes is lower than the effective speed of the 4004 CPU, overall performance of the i8008 was greater due to faster effective speed of some instructions, 8-bit architecture and more efficient instruction set. The 8008 had other advantages over the 4004, for example: the processor supported of 16 KB of memory (ROM and RAM combined), the size of internal CPU stack was 7 levels in contrast to 3 level-stack for the i4004, and the Intel 8008 could handle interrupts. Intel 8008 microprocessor was used in Mark-8 computer, which is considered to be the first personal computer. Intel 8080 The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. The 8-bit CPU was released in April 1974 running at 2 MHz, and is generally considered to be the first truly usable microprocessor CPU design. It was used in many early computers, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, compatible, Zilog Z80processor would capitalize on this, CP/M becoming the dominant OS of the period much like MS-DOS for the PC a decade later). Shortly after the 8080, the Motorola 6800competing design was introduced. The Intel 8080 was the successor to the Intel 8008 (with which it was assembly language compatible because it used the same instruction set developed by Computer Terminal Corporation). The 8080s large 40 pin DIP packaging permitted it to provide a 16-bit address bus and an 8-bit data bus. It had seven 8-bit registers (six of which could be combined into three 16-bit registers), a 16-bit stack pointer to memory (replacing the 8008s internal stack), and a 16-bit program counter. The 8080 had 256 I/O ports (allowing I/O devices to be connected without the need to allocate memory space as is required for memory mapped devices but at the expense of separate I/O instructions). The first single-board micro computer was built on the basis of the 8080 Intel Pentium Intel Pentium microprocessor was the first x86 superscalar CPU. The processor included two pipelined integer units which could execute up to two integer instructions per CPU cycle. Redesigned Floating Point Unit considerably improved performance of floating-point operations and could execute up to 1 FP instruction per CPU cycle. Other enhancements to Pentium core included: To improve data transfer rates the size of data bus was increased to 64 bits. At first Pentium processors featured separate 8 KB code and 8 KB data caches. The size of both data and code L1 caches was doubled in Pentium processors with MMX technology. Intel Pentium CPU used branch prediction to improve effectiveness of pipeline architecture. Branch prediction was enhanced in Pentium MMX processors. Many desktop Pentiums could work in dual-processor systems. To reduce CPU power consumption the core voltage was reduced on all Pentium MMX, and many mobile and embedded Pentium processors. Intel manufactured desktop, mobile and embedded versions of Pentium microprocessors. Distinguishing between different versions of Pentiums is not always easy because desktop, mobile and/or embedded Pentiums often used the same part numbers. In some cases Pentium processors with the same part and S-spec numbers were offered as desktop and embedded, or mobile and embedded microprocessors. Later versions of Pentium processors Pentium MMX included 57 new instructions. These instructions could be used to speed up processing of multimedia and communication applications. Like the Pentium processors, the Pentium MMX CPUs were also produced in three different versions desktop, mobile and embedded processors. Pentium II Intel Corporations successor to the Pentium Pro. The Pentium II can execute all the instructions of all the earlier members of the Intel 8086 processor family. There are four versions targeted at different user markets. The Celeron is the simplest and cheapest. The standard Pentium II is aimed at mainstream home and business users. The Pentium II Xeon is intended for higher performance business servers. There is also a mobile version of the Pentium II for use in portable computers. All versions of the Pentium II are packaged on a special daughterboard that plugs into a card-edge processor slot on the motherboard. The daughterboard is enclosed within a rectangular black box called a Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge. The budget Celeron may be sold as a card only without the box. Consumer line Pentium IIs require a 242-pin slot called Slot 1. The Xeon uses a 330-pin slot called Slot 2. Intel refers to Slot 1 and Slot 2 as SEC-242 and SEC-330 in some of their technical documentation. The daughterboard has mounting points for the Pentium II CPU itself plus various support chips and cache memory chips. All components on the daughterboard are normally permanently soldered in place. Previous generation Socket 7 motherboards cannot normally be upgraded to accept the Pentium II, so it is necessary to install a new motherboard. All Pentium II processors have Multimedia Extensions (MMX) and integrated Level One and Level Two cache controllers. Additional features include Dynamic Execution and Dual Independent Bus Architecture, with separate 64 bit system and cache busses. Pentium II is a superscalar CPU having about 7.5 million transistors. The first Pentium IIs produced were code named Klamath. They were manufactured using a 0.35 micron process and supported clock rates of 233, 266, 300 and 333 MHz at a bus speed of 66 MHz Second generation Pentium IIs, code named Deschutes, are made with a 0.25 micron process and support rates of 350, 400 and 450 MHz at a bus speed of 100 MHz. Pentium III The Pentium III is a microprocessor designed by Intel as a successor to its Pentium II. The Pentium III is faster; especially for applications written to take advantage of its Katmai New Instructions (the code name for the Pentium III during development was Katmai). The 70 new computer instructions make it possible to run 3-D, imaging, streaming video, speech recognition, and audio applications more quickly . In addition, the Pentium III offers clock speeds up to 800 MHz. The Katmai New Instructions are similar to the instructions optimized for multimedia applications called MMX and now included in most Pentiums. However, unlike the MMX instruction set, the Katmai instructions support floating point units as well as integer calculations, a type of calculation often required when still or video images are modified for display. The Katmai instructions also support Single Instruction Multiple Data instructions. These allow a single instruction to cause data to be modified in multiple memory locations simultaneously, a kind of parallel processing. For 3-D applications, changing values in parallel for a given 3-D scene means that users can see smoother and more realistic effects. Application developers can create effects that the slower instructions could not support, such as scenes with subtle and complex lighting. Animated effects and streaming video should also be less choppy for the viewer. The new instructions also specifically include some that will make speech recognition faster and more accurate and allow the creation of more complex audio effects. Pentium IV The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design since thePentium Pro of 1995. The original Pentium 4, codenamed Willamette, ran at 1.4 and 1.5 GHz and was released in November 2000. Unlike the Pentium II, Pentium III, and various Celerons, the architecture owed little to the Pentium Pro design, and was new from the ground up. To the surprise of most industry observers, the Pentium 4 did not improve on the old P6 design in either of the normal two key performance measures: integer processing speed or floating-point performance. Instead, it sacrificed per-cycle performance in order to gain two things: very high clockspeeds, and SSE performance. As is traditional with Intels flagship chips, the Pentium 4 also comes in a low-end Celeron version (often referred to as Celeron 4) and a high-end Xeon version intended for SMP configurations. The Pentium 4 performs much less work per cycle than other CPUs (such as the various Athlon or older Pentium III architectures) but the original design objective to sacrifice instructions per clock cycle in order to achieve a greater number of cycles per second. Above are the evolution of microprocessor, I just explain some of it, because there are too many types of microprocessor. Following the microprocessor above, it showing that microprocessors is getting better and run faster year by year. 2.0 Question 2 Memory is one of the most important things that is incorporated into computers, be it computers or PCs. There are various computer memory types installed, depending upon the actual need for functioning and specifications of the system. The computer memory relates to the many devices and components that are responsible for storing data and applications on a temporary or a permanent basis. It enables a person to retain the information that is stored on the computer. Without it, the processor would not be able to find a place which is needed to store the calculations and processes. There are different types of memory in a computer that are assigned a task of storing several kinds of data. Each has certain peculiarities and capacities. Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is a location within the computer system which is responsible for stacking away data on a temporary basis, so that it can be promptly accessed by the processor. The information stored in RAM is typically loaded from the computers hard disk, and includes data related to the operating system and certain applications. When the system is switched off, RAM loses all the stored information. The data remains stored and can be retained only when the system is running. When the RAM gets full, the computer system is more likely to operate at a slow speed. The data can be retrieved in any random order. Generally, there are two types of RAM; namely Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM). When many programs are running on the computer simultaneously, the virtual memory allows the computer to search in RAM for memory portions which havent been utilized lately and copy them onto the hard drive. This action frees up RAM space and enables the system to load different programs. RAM, or Random Access Memory, is volatile. This means that it only holds data while power is present. RAM changes constantly as the system operate, providing the storage for all data required by the operating system and software. Because of the demands made by increasingly powerful operating systems and software, system RAM requirements have accelerated dramatically over time. For instance, at the turn of the millennium a typical computer may have only 128Mb of RAM in total, but in 2007 computers commonly ship with 2Gb of RAM installed, and may include graphics cards with their own additional 512Mb of RAM and more. Read Only Memory (ROM) Read only memories (ROMs) are used in computer systems to provide a permanent storage of program instructions. A read only memory (ROM) structure comprises a matrix of intersecting bit lines and word lines with memory cells at select intersections. A read only memory (ROM) consists of an array of semiconductor devices (diodes, bipolar or field-effect transistors), which interconnect to store an array of binary data. A ROM basically consists of a memory array of programmed data and a decoder to select the data located at a desired address in the memory array. A ROM array of memory cells is defined by a number of transistors generally arranged in a grid pattern having a plurality of rows and columns. Each individual transistor of each memory cell of the ROM array is placed between a column of the series of columns and a voltage bus. A resistive ROM typically includes a planar array of parallel word lines, which is perpendicular to and insulated from a planar array of parallel bit lines . A designated number of the memory cells in the ROM have a resistive, element connecting a node of one word line with a node of one bit line. Each memory cell, consisting of a single transistor per bit of storage, is hardware pre-programmed during the integrated circuit (IC) fabrication process and is capable of maintaining the stored data indefinitely. ROM memory is used to hold and make available data or code that will not be altered after IC manufacture. Data or code is programmed into ROM memory during fabrication. The values stored within the ROM are read (i.e., output) by measuring a sense current flowing through each bit line from the memory cells of successive word lines. Three basic types of ROMs are mask-programmable ROM, erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) and field-programmable ROM (PROM). Cache Cache is a kind of RAM which a computer system can access more responsively than it can in regular RAM. The central processing unit looks up in the cache memory before searching in the central memory storage area to determine the information it requires. This rule out the need for the system to search for information in larger and bigger memory storage areas, which in turn leads to a faster extraction of data. Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there, it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. (For example, the PowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip.) L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip. The main RAM is usually a dynamic RAM (DRAM) chip. In addition to cache memory, one can think of RAM itself as a cache of memory for hard disk storage since all of RAMs contents come from the hard disk initially when you turn your computer on and load the operating system (you are loading it into RAM) and later as you start new applications and access new data. RAM can also contain a special area called a cache that contains the data most recently read in from the hard disk. Computer Hard Drive A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a disk drive, hard drive, or hard disk drive, those stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Todays computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage. A hard disk is really a set of stacked disks, each of which, like phonograph records, has data recorded electromagnetically in concentric circles or tracks on the disk. A head (something like a phonograph arm but in a relatively fixed position) records (writes) or reads the information on the tracks. Two heads, one on each side of a disk, read or write the data as the disk spins. Each read or write operation requires that data be located, which is an operation called a seek. (Data already in a disk cache, however, will be located more quickly.) A hard disk/drive unit comes with a set rotation speed varying from 4500 to 7200 rpm. Disk access time is measured in milliseconds. Although the physical location can be identified with cylinder, track, and sector locations, these are actually mapped to a logical block address (LBA) that works with the larger address range on todays hard disks. Flash Memory Flash memory (sometimes called flash RAM) is a type of constantly-powered non-volatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. It is a variation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) which, unlike flash memory, is erased and rewritten at the byte level, which is slower than flash memory updating. Flash memory is often used to hold control code such as the basic input/output system (BIOS) in a personal computer. When BIOS needs to be changed (rewritten), the flash memory can be written to in block (rather than byte) sizes, making it easy to update. On the other hand, flash memory is not useful as random access memory (RAM) because RAM needs to be addressable at the byte (not the block) level. Flash memory gets its name because the microchip is organized so that a section of memory cells are erased in a single action or flash. The erasure is caused by Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling in which electrons pierce through a thin dielectric to remove an electronic charge from a floating gate associated with each memory cell. Intel offers a form of flash memory that holds two bits (rather than one) in each memory cell, thus doubling the capacity of memory without a corresponding increase in price. Flash memory is used in digital cellular phones, digital cameras, LAN switches, PC Cards for notebook computers, digital set-up boxes, embedded controllers, and other devices. These are just the common and main computer memory types which facilitate memory and data storage. However, there are many subtypes which are sorted out according to the memory-related functionalities they perform and the requirements they serve. 4.0 Conclusion In the assignment, I have completed it by myself and I was doing research in internet, reference books and some of the notes that giving by lecturer. In question, I was explaining the evolution of the microprocessor, from the 1st generation to Pentium 4. I was choosing some of the microprocessors randomly and explain it with detail. Through the question, I know the microprocessors are getting better year by year. In question 2, I was requested to compare the various types of memories. So I have explained and compare in my question 2. For example: RAM, ROM, Hard drive, cache and so on. I learn a lot of knowledge through the assignment. It will be helpful for my examination.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Treating Eczema Essay -- Diseases, Disorders

Have you ever had or witnessed someone with Eczema? Well it is not fun having or experiencing this skin disease. Eczema is a chronic skin disorder that cannot be cured and causes the skin to become itchy, red, and dry, but it can be treated by dieting, home remedies, medications, and therapies. People coping with this disease try many forms of these treatments and even try to come up with some of their own treatments. Dealing with eczema can be a lifelong process for people who have it. Having Eczema, many things can cause flare ups including foods. Foods such as eggs can cause flares in younger children. â€Å"Avoiding eggs, fish, peanuts, and soy may help some people reduce flares†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Ehrlich 1). Dairy products, wheat, corn tomatoes, and citrus such as lemons and oranges can cause allergic reactions in the skin. â€Å"Eat less saturated fats (meats, especially poultry, and dairy, refined foods, and sugar. These foods contributed to inflammation in the body.† (Ehrlich 2). Beneficial foods to help with Eczema would be your fatty acids that can be essential. â€Å"In one study, people taking fish oil equal to 1.8 g of EPA (one of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil) had significant reduction in symptoms of eczema after 12 weeks.’ (Ehrlich 2). Other fatty acids containing oils that can help are evening primrose oil, which helps in reducing the itch of eczema, and borage oil, which helps as an anti-inflammatory; both have gamma linoleic acid containing omega-6 fatty acid. Eating salubrious can help reduce the effects of eczema on the body.†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ so eating a healthy diet may help reduce inflammation and allergic reaction.† (Ehrlich 2). Having more fresh vegetables and whole grains are better for you than preserved foods. Adding he... ...f home remedies and some people even come up with their own. Medications and therapies are available for people with eczema just asked a doctor about them or to provide information about them. Eczema is a chronic skin and causes the skin to become itchy, red, and dry, but it can be treated by dieting, home remedies, medications, and therapies. Works Cited â€Å"Eczema: What You Should Know." 01 05 2007 . Ehrlich, Steven D." Eczema." 20 09 2009 . Health, National Institutes of. "Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis". 01 02 2011 . M., B. "Eczema" Brooke Brockman. 01 2012. Vorvick, Linda J. "Atopic Eczema." 10 10 2010 .

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Aviation Technology

Although the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) runs one of the safest air transportation systems in the whole world, it is foreseeing an aviation problem caused by increasing passenger numbers and consequently, more crowded skies (U.S. Government Accountability Office [GAO], 2007).   The number of passengers is expected to reach 1 billion per year 8 years from now.FAA (2007) shows concern that if it does not take action, there will be far greater delays than what is being experienced right now, leading to economic losses which could amount to $22 billion.   That is why the agency is starting to institute transformations in its system to address this key issue.One of these is the transition from the currently-used system to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) – a step that promises to prevent gridlock in the skies.One of the critical components of NextGen is ADS-B, short for Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast, which is considere d to be the â€Å"backbone of the NextGen system† and utilizes GPS satellite signals to provide both pilots and air traffic control stations with more precise information to enable a more efficient and safer use of the skies (FAA, 2007).How Does ADS-B Work?Unlike radar which involves transmitting electromagnetic pulses and bouncing them off airborne targets and then interpreting reflected signals, ADS-B works by relying on satellite-based GPS system in order to determine the aircraft’s exact position as well as a host of other parameters such as the aircraft’s speed, route, heading, altitude and flight number (â€Å"ADS-B†, 2007; â€Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation Safety†, 2007).These information are broadcasted via a radio transmitter and can be received by other aircrafts, ground stations and ground vehicles that are also equipped with ADS-B (Caisso, 2001).   Aircrafts and ground control stations within 150-200 miles of the broadca sting aircraft (orADS-B   ground station) receive the information and display it in an easily understandable format in a computer screen.   Pilots can view this information on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) while air traffic controllers on the ground can see the ADS-B aircrafts on their regular traffic display screen (â€Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation Safety†, 2007).Users of ADS-B are assured of receiving air traffic information in real-time which means that both the pilot and the controller on the ground can both view the same information at the same time.Benefits of ADS-BOne of the major benefits of ADS-B, as stated earlier, is the ability of both the pilot and the ground station, when both equipped with ADS-B, to view reliable and accurate air traffic information in real time.   There will also be less need for aircrafts to continually send and receive signals from ground-based controllers (FAA, 2007).   This will lighten the load of air traffic controllers, enabling them to accommodate and serve more aircrafts at a more efficient rate.The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) also supports the government’s move to pursue ADS-B in lieu of radar and other surveillance technologies, stating that their members can benefit from ADS-B as it is able to provide graphic weather updates and textual flight advisories (AOPA, 2006).These information were considered to be an expensive add-on to existing aviation technology resulting to its unpopular use in aircrafts (â€Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation Safety†, 2007).   Furthermore, AOPA believes that FAA can have enormous savings because ground-based transmitters cost at most $200,000 as opposed to radar systems that cost the government millions of dollars.ADS-BAnother reason why ADS-B is preferable to radar systems is that aside from it being less expensive than radars, ADS-B updates at least once a second compared to radars which can so metimes take as long as 12 seconds (AOPA, 2006; FAA, 2007). ADS-B also has wider coverage and ADS-B ground station can be put in place more easily than radars.   In fact, FAA’s Capstone Program involved equipping airlines and air taxis in Southwest Alaska with the new technology.The region was particularly chosen because most of the ground is frozen for the whole year making a lot of places inaccessible by land (FAA, 2001).   Furthermore, remote areas cannot be reached by radars making the place a perfect testing ground for ADS-B technology.   Starting in 1999, the program has continued until at present and has even expanded to include two more phases.The use of ADS-B has reduced accidents in the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta –a place not reached by conventional radar – by 43 percent in 2003-2006 (Stapleton, 2006).   The results of the Capstone program proves that ADS-B technology can be used to increase efficiency and safety in aircrafts.The drop in the n umber of accidents in Southwest Alaska can probably be attributed to ADS-B’s ability to enhance aviation safety by providing pilots with features such as automatic traffic call-outs and warnings of impending arrivals or take-offs in the runway (â€Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation Safety†, 2007).ADS-B, having a range of more than 100 miles, provides the aircraft with a wider margin in which to detect conflict (e.g. an imminent collision).   Compared to existing systems, resolution of conflicts can be enacted within a shorter span of time.Disadvantages of ADS-BBenenson (2005) noted a certain disadvantage of ADS-B while flying his Cessna Cardinal, which he equipped with ADS-B UAT (Universal Access Transceiver).   It was notADS-B  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5really a disadvantage of the technology itself but rather to the lack of ground-based transceivers (GBTs) at present.   In order for non-ADS-B aircrafts to be displayed in a CDTI, the ADS-B equipped plane must be within the line of sight of a GBT.   The GBT sends traffic information coming from air traffic surveillance sensors, most probably radar.The radar   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  information however is not as accurate as the one received through ADS-B, so the non-ADS-B plane appears in the CDTI distorted.   Related to this, pilots who are equipped with the new technology may be over-confident, thinking that he perfectly understands the surrounding traffic, forgetting that only equipped aircraft are able to transmit their position quite clearly (Caisso, 2001).Evans (2006) tackles more serious issues such as the risk of â€Å"spoofing† by individuals whose sole intent is to produce as many false ASD-B targets on an air traffic controller’s screen.   Dick Smith, the former head of Australia’s Civil Aviation Authority, was the first to make public the reality of such a risk.   He claimed that spoofing can be done using a laptop, an ADS-B transceiver and a $5 antenna.ADS-B experts in the United States, after performing their own tests, agreed with Smith that spoofing is indeed possible with the new technology.   FAA, being aware of such a possibility, are putting the pressure on the bidders for ground stations, which should be able to show their system’s anti-spoofing ability.Although ADS-B is seen to be less expensive than radar, airline and aviation companies still think that the new technology is not worth the amount they’re going to spend to replace existing systems and are holding off buying until the prices drop (Evans, 2006).However, the prices are not likely to go down until there is a greater demand for the technology.   ADS-B Program Manager Vincent Capezzuto said that if consumers are not willing to make any investment risks, it will be difficult to follow airspace mandates and delays in the benefits offered by the program could be delayed.ADS-B  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   6Evans (2006) also tackled the danger of completely relyin g on GPS for aircraft navigation and surveillance.   FAA acknowledges that GPS may be prone to interference and of course, failure.   When such a situation arises, an ADS-B – equipped aircraft will have no means by which to obtain air traffic information.   It is therefore critical to come up with a backup system.The Implication of ADS-B in the Aviation IndustryADS-B can be considered a milestone in the aviation industry.   Never before has there been a technology that can provide so much air traffic information and a lot of other features with just a single equipment.   With the large volume of passengers and greater air traffic expected by FAA in the coming years, ADS-B seems to be a viable (if not the most) answer to this issue.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Enviornmental Logging Problems essays

Enviornmental Logging Problems essays Abolishing Logging Tactics To Save Fish Proves to Be Fatal to Surrounding Economy As most would interpret, densely wooded portions of land and or forests serve not only as a place of feasible ecological balance but also as a realm of majestic tranquility. Other individuals, ones with an opposing viewpoint, view forests as a potential profit baring resource eagerly waiting and standing to be taken. This simple rationale remains just the case some fifty mile outside the city of Seattle Washington on and around the Cedar River Watershed logging site. Recently, acting environmental parties argue that the commercial logging on and around the Cedar River is dramatically impacting the migration and spawning runs of both the Chinook and Coho Salmon populations. Logging industries contest, while obeying the no-cut buffer zone guidelines and following every environmental policy by the book, the economic benefits of continuing operations far outweigh those that call for the region to be transformed into an ecological wilderness preserve. It then becomes a question of access ing what remains more economically and environmentally feasible, both in the present and near future. One of the biggest factors reinforcing the movement to abandon the commercial logging sites around the Cedar River stem from the long-term effects operations have had on the declining Salmon populations. While considering all the cutting and logging restrictions currently enforced, in-stream run-off from commercial harvesting persists to remain the sole proprietor to this ongoing problem. As trees are cut, a small yet suitable amount of natural pollutants are formed. These pollutants, which typically consist of loosened soil and wooded stump particles eventually make their ways through the forests base and into the near by water supply via snow melt and heavy rains. As a result, the water quality and or purity of oxidization is dramatically affect ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Quantify References to Elapsed Time

Quantify References to Elapsed Time Quantify References to Elapsed Time Quantify References to Elapsed Time By Mark Nichol A writer’s book-jacket bio mentions that she’s been a reporter for fifteen years. An online product review refers to a device having been launched last fall. Your blog relates that you attended a conference the previous month. What’s wrong with each of these descriptions? They all assume the reader is trapped in temporal stasis. By the time the book comes out, the bio’s reference to the writer’s tenure will be outdated. When someone checks it out from a library or picks it up at a used-book store five years later, it will be even more so. The solution? â€Å"Jane Doe has been a reporter since 1996.† Anyone researching the product online who comes across the review may miss the small, obscure dateline and assume the device came on the market the previous fall, when it may in fact be years old. The solution? â€Å"The Wacky Widget, launched in fall 2010, still tops the market in quality.† Visitors reading your blog’s archives will wonder why you misidentified the time of year when a well-known conference takes place. The solution? â€Å"I had an interesting experience at the July 2011 OMG conference.† None of these errors is serious, but they are all errors, and they are all easily avoided. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Comparative Forms of Adjectives50 Idioms About Roads and PathsThe Difference Between "Phonics" and "Phonetics"

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Globalization and Factors Influence Human Resource Management Essay

Globalization and Factors Influence Human Resource Management - Essay Example However, at the same time, the diversity in the HR practices has also been exhibited. The cultural differences among the countries are clearly reflected in the organizational structure and practices, which gives rise to several independent HR management processes. This makes it quite important for the international organizations to adopt cross cultural practices (GPF, 2015). The process of globalization and its impact on the human resource management (HRM) have been discussed in the paper. The factors involving the social, political, legal, economic and cultural aspects that influence the management of cross border business practices have been added. Globalization can be described as a process or a set of processes that leads to integration of international entities leading to exchange of views towards business, culture, technology and national economy (Pieterse, 2015). It is a process by which the world is becoming more interconnected, owing to the cross border trade and adoption of cultural practices. It has allowed the firms to have access to new target customers in different nations, thereby increasing their target customer base (Held et al, 1999). This in turn has also increased the production of goods and services over the decades. The large companies have now been transformed to multinational organizations, as they own multiple subsidiaries in several other nations. It has also made it easier for the firms to conduct their business operations, as they can now leverage the comparative advantage of other countries by outsourcing resources or activities. In terms of the global economy, globalization has helped to improve the economic conditions of several developing countries. However, it has also been argued that globalization in certain cases have led to suppression of local firms in the developing countries (BBC, 2014). Â  

Friday, November 1, 2019

FEA Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

FEA - Assignment Example The results are then used to undertake weight optimisation of the model. The limits of the redesigned model are the face bearing the load, strength of the load and the fixed points which are not alterable. The only changing variables are the geometry and materials used. The model was then analysed in the SimulationXpress Analysis Wizard. The first step in this process was to fix the position of the 4 holes where the bracket will be fastened to the body of the structure. This is carried out in the fixtures section and the faces assigned as fixed geometry as shown in figure 2. This fixes the lower section of the bracket to its location in the machine, structure or component where it will be employed. The external load on the geometry is a force of 1kN and is applied on the region of 750and 50mm from the upper section of the load bearing face. This force does not act on the whole region hence a sketch is created 50mm from the upper section and creating a split line to allow the force to applied on the hatched region of the load bearing face on the drawing. Figure 3 shows the model with the split line created. The simulation results are produced giving the stress, displacement, deformation and the safety factor. Determining the maximum displacement and stress is the key objective at this point. The maximum Von Misses stress is 737.96mPa while the yield stress is 620.422mPa. This shows that the stress experienced is higher than the yield stress and hence failure due to the 1KN load applied. This is shown in figure 5. The results from part A are used to carry out a redesign of the bracket which are then validated with Finite Element Analysis. The main objective of this redesign work is to reduce the weight of the bracket by at least 10% and the deflection should not be more than 10%. In this redesign work, the material was the main focus for reducing the weight of the bracket. The aim was to select a material similar to steel but is lighter in weight. Aluminium

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Interpersonal Communications (Individual Work #2) Essay

Interpersonal Communications (Individual Work #2) - Essay Example interpersonal communication interfere with one’s diversity competency because it makes the person unable to reach out to other individuals or groups. For example, cultural barriers may interfere with an American employee’s performance in dealing with Asian colleagues or clients. Another example is when an individual’s shy personality may interfere with their ability to express themselves and be effective and efficient employees. 5.Based on your diagnosis feedback practices you experienced in a current or previous job through the completion of the instrument in Table 9.1 which practices are least effective? How might they be improved – the Table 9.1 is not available on the Google books copy of your textbook. Also, I don’t have your answers to the table so I wasn’t able to answer this number. I have answered the rest of the numbers, the total word count of which is 500 (two pages) 6. Media richness is important in interpersonal communication because messages have different purposes. This necessitates different forms of delivery and different kinds of channels. For example, a performance feedback needs a personal approach, like a meeting with one’s supervisor. Meanwhile, a call for a brainstorming on a project would only require an email or a written notice. In the organization I’ve worked for, our leaders were very careful about getting messages across. There is no need for changes as my colleagues and I are very satisfied with how our leaders communicate with us. 7. There are times when the nonverbal cues used by my colleagues are inconsistent with their verbal expressions. For example, a supervisor may say that he is listening to my concerns. However, his arms are crossed over his chest. His face is passive. At times, he may keep on checking his watch or the clock on the wall. There are also times when co-workers are consistent with their words, especially when we are discussing about projects or coming up with solutions to issues. 8. My

Monday, October 28, 2019

Turture Case Essay Example for Free

Turture Case Essay This world is full of crimes and war. There isn’t one country out there that doesn’t have some sort of confliction with other countries. Is it normal? Is it ok to be committing all these war crimes? Honestly there isn’t any reasonable answer for that. Several people argue differently about the situation on war crimes. The author of â€Å"Thinking about Torture†, also film critic for National Review, and author of many other books; Ross Douthat talks about what he thinks about war crimes, which he believes they are not correct but the war crimes could be justified. In the other hand the author of â€Å"Committing War Crimes for the ‘Right Reasons’†, Glenn Greenwald who was also a constitutional law and civil rights lawyer has his own opinion. He believes war crimes are not acceptable for any reason. Sometimes it’s difficult to decide what side is correct. The question here is, is torture ok? In â€Å"Thinking about Torture†, Douthat writes â€Å"It doesn’t excuse what was done by our government, and in our name, in prisons, in detentions, cells around the world. But anyone who felt the way I felt after 9/11 has to reckon with the fact that what was done in our name was, in some sense, done for us.† This illustrates that Douthat has somewhat mixed feelings about torture. He feels that there is no excuse for the use of torture and what the government has done. But the way he felt after the attack of 9/11 what the government did was done for us to feel some form of justice. In â€Å"Committing War Crimes for the ‘Right Reasons†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢, Greenwald makes it clear when he states â€Å"but we don’t accept that justifying reasoning when offered by other. In fact those who seek merely to explain – let alone justified the – the tyranny, extremism and/or violence of Castro, or Chavez, or Ha mas, or Slobodan Milosevic or Islamic extremists are immediately condemned for seeking to defend the indefensible, or invoking â€Å"root causes† to justify the unjustifiable, or offering mitigating rationale for pure evil.† With this he is saying that many people will always find some kind of defense to justify the use of torture, but in reality there is no justification for an act of malevolence. Douthat finds justifications to the tortures that could reasonable to some while Greenwald finds no justification and believes the excuses are poor. Even though Douthat and Greenwald may have different views they also have some similarities. They both agree in some way that it is not correct. Douthat states in paragraph 9, â€Å"here I am more comfortable saying straightforwardly that this should never have been allowed – that it should be considered impermissible as well as immoral, and that it should involve disgrace for those responsible, the Cheneys and Rumsfelds as well as the people who actually implemented the techniques that the Vice President’s office promoted and the Secretary of Defense signed off on.† Douthat is stating that the torture should have not taken place at all to beg in with and is unforgiveable. The people behind all of this should be ashamed of their actions. Greenwald states in paragraph 12, â€Å"What determines whether a political leader is good or evil isn’t their nationality. It’s their conduct. And leaders, who violate the laws of war and commit war crimes, by definition, aren’t good, even if they are American.† Greenwald is simply and clearly is stating that it doesn’t matter what nationality a leader is from to determine whether they are good or bad leaders, but what determines if they are good or bad leaders are by their actions. They both agree that a leader should be responsible with what actions they choose. And if a leader chooses an unpleasant action they should be ashamed and considered terrible leaders. As people may have their own views and opinions like Douthat and Greenwald one finding a justification for torture and the other finding no excuse for it. Everyone will always have their own view, opinion, and answer, but at the end the real answer will never be known. For example Douthat could convince with the justifications he finds but Greenwald will also convince some on how there is no justification. The correct decision should always be chosen to avoid all this conflicts some people will argue. But how does somebody actually what the â€Å"correct† choice is? With people like Douthat and Greenwald arguing their sides it’s difficult to choose the correct one.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Faithing :: Essays Papers

Faithing Faith is an odd sort of virtue. In these days of televangelism, tracts, and the "Christian right," one would be tempted to identify faith with a set of beliefs, a conglomerate of successive religious propositions that one has accepted; a branch of one’s "mental furniture," so to speak. However, to limit one’s definition of faith to this narrow band is to do faith itself a disservice. In the history of literature and philosophy alike, there are those who have conceived of faith rather differently. Among these are Myles Connolly and Sà ¸ ren Kierkegaard in their respective works Mr. Blue and Judge for Yourself! What these men seek to effect is not so much a redefinition of faith as a refinement and expansion it. Principles, yes, they say; but furthermore, actions flowing out of those principles. This type of faith is thus characterized not only by beliefs, but also the natural actions that come from those beliefs. In this way, faith becomes something that envelopes a per son’s whole being; it is transmuted into a complete orientation for one’s life. This type of faith, extolled by Kierkegaard, is embodied in the character of J. Blue in Myles Connolly’s book Mr. Blue. Blue was a rather singular person to say the least. At the very beginning of the book, the narrator says the following of Blue: I have not the slightest doubt he would have been †¦ immensely happy in a poorhouse. He had no money. When by accident he happened upon some he gave it away. He worked here and there for his meals and a place to sleep. He roamed eastern United States and really did get abroad. The while he lived gloriously, and, withal, religiously. He impressed one as a sort of gay, young, and gallant monk without an Order. Or perhaps his Order was life, and the world his monastery. (15) Such a person was Blue. He had little interest in possessions, he was much more entranced by a bright splash of color, a marching band, or a sunset viewed off the top of a skyscraper. But above all, his profession, if he could be said to have one, was people. Blue was in love with people, his eyes sparkled for them, his mind was on fire for them, his heart bled for them. Blue’s idea of the ultimate life project was to establish what he called the "Spies of God," an unorganized group of people that simply went around loving other people, people in need, poor people.