Sunday, November 24, 2019
Stress Essay Example Stress Essay Stress Essay There are four types of stress and these are the following: 1) Eustress, which occurs during strenuous activities, enthusiasm, activities wherein extreme imagination is included, inspiration, motivation, and stimulation is necessitated; this is typically experienced by those sportsmen who are about to compete; it is actually a positive stress (National.., 2006). 2) Distress, which happens when changes and adjustments are made especially if such activities are considered routine; it consequently leads to feelings of uneasiness and unfamiliarity; this is usually experienced by those who move from one place to another and those who change jobs too often (National.., 2006). 3) Hyperstress, which results when a person goes over his or her limits or what he or she can typically handle; if such happens, even little issues exceedingly irritate them, consequently, exhibiting a strong emotional response; this is typically experienced by those who are overworked (National.., 2006). There are times where I have to stay late hours over my schedule because many employees do not want to show up. This makes me very frustrated and causes my cognitive processes to be so unclear. I always have a set routine at work so this really messes with my schedule and alters what I need to get done such as school work and much needed studying. To manage these emotions I really have to breathe and think about why I am working and what is important about getting those hours. Thinking positively really helps me to get through the long aggravating hours and helps me better focus. I feel that this way is somewhat effective sometimes because I am able to get through and finish all tasks I am asked to complete no matter how aggravating. There are so many times when I am faced with situations involving my personal life, such as family issues, or even problems with financial issues. In times such as these I become very depressed and even saddened of all the problems. When trying to cope with situations like this I tend to want to be by myself and try to think of ways to make the situation better. I begin managing my budget on all my financial Issues and I also found ways to talk to others such as friends or close relatives about my problems. This helped me to better cope with my Issues and become a very effective method when dealing with situations like this. I feel that sometimes there are other ways that I can deal with my Issues but I do tend to forget about the positive and think more negatively. Everyone has emotions and some people, however may not know how to control their emotions. Whether you are dealing with anger, depression, or frustration, you always need a way to manage your feelings calmly and positively. In the future there are many ways that I can learn to manage and express my emotions. It may seem that theres nothing you can do about stress. The bills wont stop coming, there will never be more noirs In ten clay, Ana your career Ana Tamely responsibilities wall always owe demanding. But you have more control than you might think. In fact, the simple realization that youre in control of your life is the foundation of stress management. Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts, emotions, schedule, and the way you deal with problems. Some ways to manage stress and control the emotions along with them would be; learn how to say no Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your personal or professional life, taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress, avoid people who stress you out If someone consistently causes stress in your life and you cant turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with that person or end the relationship entirely, take control of your environment If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to the market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online, pare down your to-do list Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the should and the musts. Drop tasks that arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely. When expressing feelings you must accept the responsibilities for your feelings, show others that you are feeling a certain way but also show this in a positive way. Choose he best time and place to express your feelings, even if the situation is one you feel negatively about it is always best to experience those strong feelings in a way that will not affect others. Perceiving others more accurately isnt the only challenge communicators face. At times we view ourselves in a distorted way. These distorted self- perceptions can generate a wide range of feelings such as insecurity, anger, and guilt. Learning to cope and manage emotions helps everyone in the long run because you not only can think straight but you can also do better at completing tasks and also managing the constant aggravation of bills and everyday life. I have learned that it is very important to stay calm and Just breathe.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Should the Canadian Government Use Monetary and Fiscal Policy to Stabilize the Economy - Term Paper Example The low inflation is desirable for it removes uncertainty in the economy and in the decision making. Low inflation rate is achieved through changes in prime interest rate by central bank of Canada time to time. Bank of Canada has set inflation target of 2 percent to be achieved in 18-24 months period. The current inflation rate is hovering around 3.4 percent. Monetary policy helps achieve this through different measures. By hiking the interest rate, the Bank of Canada would try to bring the inflation rate on its target of around 2 percent. The difficulty arises towards adjusting the size and timings of interest rate and that is where the question of using appropriate monetary policy comes into play. There are always some volatile components in the consumer price index that creates destabilizing effect time to time. For example, in the recent period the biggest volatile component has been crude oil, gasoline or diesel that keeps on fluctuating wildly throughout the year. In fact, that threatens to make the consumer index away from the target. The prices of these commodities cannot be administered by the government in the free market economy. That is where the monetary policy intervention by adjusting the interest rate comes into picture to increase or decrease the consumption to keep the inflation on target. The general price level of all services and goods in the given economy has influence on the money demand and interest rates. Higher price level increases money demand and higher money demand causes higher interest rate. Higher interest rate decreases the demand of quantity of goods and services. Inflation rate relative to the target is the indicator to judge where the demand is in relation to the supply. What Monetary Policy Cannot Influence in Long Run? The monetary policy can influence the other market variables such as investment, real output or unemployment only for short periods of time. It cannot exert influence on these parameters on sustained basis f or a long period of time as it can do on the rate of inflation. As argued by Friedman (1968), this happens because any changes in real wages or unemployment are eventually offset by adjustments of market forces in response to demand-supply dynamics of the market. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers The automatic stabilizers are equally important. In Canada, employment insurance payouts and various kinds of tax revenues fall in this category. These fiscal stabilizers such as personal income tax deducted by the employer work immediately without any time lag to bring the desired effect but insurance payouts work with some time lag. They are quite effective and helpful in dampening outputs but only partly. Against this, the monetary policy is useful to create a complete offset any change in output but that cannot be achieved immediately; it takes about 12-18 months for an effect to take place. Monetary policy and fiscal policy do not work in isolation. For example, when the government changes fiscal policy, they need to also think that how changes in fiscal policy will bring change in inflation rates. Similarly, the Bank of Canada while changing interest rates also needs to consider the changes in fiscal policy to judge the inflation and demand parameters. Conclusion Thus, the appropriate mix of the monetary and fiscal policies with clear objectives can bring about the desired economic stabilization
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
English - Essay Example The movement was caused by an unusual phenomenon, Synchronous Lateral Excitation (London Landmarks, 56). When people walk, they naturally sway a little, which in turn caused the bridge to sway with them. Given that the engineers had not installed any form of dampers, the swaying of the bridge was uncontrollable (BBC online, 2000). Synchronous lateral excitation is basically when the bridge moves laterally in conjunction with outside forces. In this case, pedestrians walking across the bridge. In order for the engineers to alleviate this movement, they needed to install a damping system. After discussion of either active or passive damping, they chose passive damping. This form of damping uses viscous dampers that are encased pistons, similar in action to the shocks of a vehicle, to absorb and transfer the movement of the bridge so that the swaying is no longer felt. These viscous dampers reduce the lateral motion. In order to reduce the vertical motion, the engineers employed tuned m ass dampers. These dampers are very simple in their technology, as they are tuned to the frequency of the inertia of the bridge, thus reducing lateral movement (Jones, 87). The engineers in this case should have taken a closer look at the mechanics of the bridge when they built it.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Ethics - Essay Example For example, some organizations have sound philosophy in making the environment clean and green and for that purpose they will try to avoid as much as activities which may harm the environment. The employees must be well aware of these things in order to work in line with such policies. Training and development is also intended for making the employee capable of recognizing and respecting the dignities of other fellow employees in the organization. It will also generate loyalty towards the organization and the fellow employees. Organizations can develop only through encouraging team work and the team work principles can be taught through training and development only. In academic curriculum the employee may not learn much about the organizational setups, culture and behavior and only through training and development an employee will get better insights about such things. For example keeping confidentiality and integrity is essential at workplace which the employee may not be practiced during his/her student life. So a fresh employee may not be aware of the importance of such things and hence they need better training and development in order to customize them suitable for the organization. Team work is an essential requirement in an organizational setup. An individual can do little with his individual efforts whereas he can double his productivity when he functions as part of a team. For example, a marketing professional will get better ideas about marketing from the team members when he works as part of a team. The market forecasts and fluctuations like important information are needed for him which will be obtained easily when wok as part of a team. Ethics related to teamwork deals with Ã¢â¬Å"how do groups achieve justice (in the distribution of work), responsibility (in specifying tasks, assigning blame, and awarding credit), reasonableness (ensuring participation, resolving conflict, and
Friday, November 15, 2019
Processor Is The Heart Of The Computer A microprocessor or processor is the heart of the computer and it performs all the computational tasks, calculations and data processing etc. inside the computer. Microprocessor is the brain of the computer. In the computers, the most popular type of the processor is the Intel Pentium chip and the Pentium 1V is the latest chip by Intel Corporation. The microprocessors can be classified based on the following features. Computer memory stores data temporarily for rapid retrieval. When most computer users refer to the term, they are talking about the main memory of the computer. This is also called the random access memory (or RAM for short). However, memory chips of varying types are integrated into just about every electronic device you can think of, including coffee machines, microwaves, network routers, and cell phones. 2.0 Question 1 Nowadays, the cost of the computer continues to drop dramatically while the performance and capacity of the system continue to rise equally dramatically. I am going to write about the evolution of microprocessor system. I will start from the 1st microprocessor Intel 4004 to Pantium4. Intel 4004 The 4004 is the worlds first microprocessor. The 4004 was created at Intel with Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin as the lead designers. The 4004 provided a new tool to the world. Up to that time and semiconductors and ICs were built for a specific purpose. The 4004 was the first semiconductor device that provided, at the chip level, the functions of a computer. The 4004 contains the two basic architectural building blocks that are still found in todays microcomputers: the arithmetic and logic unit and the control unit. The Intel 4004 ran at a clock speed of 108 kHz and contained 2300 transistors. By the time it was in production the clock speed was increased to 500kHz and later to 740kHz. It processed data in 4 bits, but its instructions were 8 bits long. The 4004 addressed up to 1 Kb of program memory and up to 4 Kb of data memory (as separate entities). It had sixteen 4-bit (or eight 8-bit) general purpose registers, and an instruction set containing 45 instructions. The 4004 family is also referred to as the MCS-4. Intel 8008 The first 8-bit microprocessor, Intel 8008 (i8008) was released 5 months after Intel 4004. The 8008 was available in two speed grades 500 KHz and 800 KHz. Because it took the CPU from 5 to 8 cycles to execute each instruction, the effective rate of instruction execution was from 45,000 to 100,000 instructions per second for Intel 8008 and from 72,000 to 160,000 instruction per second for Intel 8088-1 These numbers assume that the CPU uses fast memory and doesnt require wait states to access the memory. Although the effective speed in instructions per second of the 8008 microprocessor sometimes is lower than the effective speed of the 4004 CPU, overall performance of the i8008 was greater due to faster effective speed of some instructions, 8-bit architecture and more efficient instruction set. The 8008 had other advantages over the 4004, for example: the processor supported of 16 KB of memory (ROM and RAM combined), the size of internal CPU stack was 7 levels in contrast to 3 level-stack for the i4004, and the Intel 8008 could handle interrupts. Intel 8008 microprocessor was used in Mark-8 computer, which is considered to be the first personal computer. Intel 8080 The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. The 8-bit CPU was released in April 1974 running at 2 MHz, and is generally considered to be the first truly usable microprocessor CPU design. It was used in many early computers, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, compatible, Zilog Z80processor would capitalize on this, CP/M becoming the dominant OS of the period much like MS-DOS for the PC a decade later). Shortly after the 8080, the Motorola 6800competing design was introduced. The Intel 8080 was the successor to the Intel 8008 (with which it was assembly language compatible because it used the same instruction set developed by Computer Terminal Corporation). The 8080s large 40 pin DIP packaging permitted it to provide a 16-bit address bus and an 8-bit data bus. It had seven 8-bit registers (six of which could be combined into three 16-bit registers), a 16-bit stack pointer to memory (replacing the 8008s internal stack), and a 16-bit program counter. The 8080 had 256 I/O ports (allowing I/O devices to be connected without the need to allocate memory space as is required for memory mapped devices but at the expense of separate I/O instructions). The first single-board micro computer was built on the basis of the 8080 Intel Pentium Intel Pentium microprocessor was the first x86 superscalar CPU. The processor included two pipelined integer units which could execute up to two integer instructions per CPU cycle. Redesigned Floating Point Unit considerably improved performance of floating-point operations and could execute up to 1 FP instruction per CPU cycle. Other enhancements to Pentium core included: To improve data transfer rates the size of data bus was increased to 64 bits. At first Pentium processors featured separate 8 KB code and 8 KB data caches. The size of both data and code L1 caches was doubled in Pentium processors with MMX technology. Intel Pentium CPU used branch prediction to improve effectiveness of pipeline architecture. Branch prediction was enhanced in Pentium MMX processors. Many desktop Pentiums could work in dual-processor systems. To reduce CPU power consumption the core voltage was reduced on all Pentium MMX, and many mobile and embedded Pentium processors. Intel manufactured desktop, mobile and embedded versions of Pentium microprocessors. Distinguishing between different versions of Pentiums is not always easy because desktop, mobile and/or embedded Pentiums often used the same part numbers. In some cases Pentium processors with the same part and S-spec numbers were offered as desktop and embedded, or mobile and embedded microprocessors. Later versions of Pentium processors Pentium MMX included 57 new instructions. These instructions could be used to speed up processing of multimedia and communication applications. Like the Pentium processors, the Pentium MMX CPUs were also produced in three different versions desktop, mobile and embedded processors. Pentium II Intel Corporations successor to the Pentium Pro. The Pentium II can execute all the instructions of all the earlier members of the Intel 8086 processor family. There are four versions targeted at different user markets. The Celeron is the simplest and cheapest. The standard Pentium II is aimed at mainstream home and business users. The Pentium II Xeon is intended for higher performance business servers. There is also a mobile version of the Pentium II for use in portable computers. All versions of the Pentium II are packaged on a special daughterboard that plugs into a card-edge processor slot on the motherboard. The daughterboard is enclosed within a rectangular black box called a Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge. The budget Celeron may be sold as a card only without the box. Consumer line Pentium IIs require a 242-pin slot called Slot 1. The Xeon uses a 330-pin slot called Slot 2. Intel refers to Slot 1 and Slot 2 as SEC-242 and SEC-330 in some of their technical documentation. The daughterboard has mounting points for the Pentium II CPU itself plus various support chips and cache memory chips. All components on the daughterboard are normally permanently soldered in place. Previous generation Socket 7 motherboards cannot normally be upgraded to accept the Pentium II, so it is necessary to install a new motherboard. All Pentium II processors have Multimedia Extensions (MMX) and integrated Level One and Level Two cache controllers. Additional features include Dynamic Execution and Dual Independent Bus Architecture, with separate 64 bit system and cache busses. Pentium II is a superscalar CPU having about 7.5 million transistors. The first Pentium IIs produced were code named Klamath. They were manufactured using a 0.35 micron process and supported clock rates of 233, 266, 300 and 333 MHz at a bus speed of 66 MHz Second generation Pentium IIs, code named Deschutes, are made with a 0.25 micron process and support rates of 350, 400 and 450 MHz at a bus speed of 100 MHz. Pentium III The Pentium III is a microprocessor designed by Intel as a successor to its Pentium II. The Pentium III is faster; especially for applications written to take advantage of its Katmai New Instructions (the code name for the Pentium III during development was Katmai). The 70 new computer instructions make it possible to run 3-D, imaging, streaming video, speech recognition, and audio applications more quickly . In addition, the Pentium III offers clock speeds up to 800 MHz. The Katmai New Instructions are similar to the instructions optimized for multimedia applications called MMX and now included in most Pentiums. However, unlike the MMX instruction set, the Katmai instructions support floating point units as well as integer calculations, a type of calculation often required when still or video images are modified for display. The Katmai instructions also support Single Instruction Multiple Data instructions. These allow a single instruction to cause data to be modified in multiple memory locations simultaneously, a kind of parallel processing. For 3-D applications, changing values in parallel for a given 3-D scene means that users can see smoother and more realistic effects. Application developers can create effects that the slower instructions could not support, such as scenes with subtle and complex lighting. Animated effects and streaming video should also be less choppy for the viewer. The new instructions also specifically include some that will make speech recognition faster and more accurate and allow the creation of more complex audio effects. Pentium IV The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design since thePentium Pro of 1995. The original Pentium 4, codenamed Willamette, ran at 1.4 and 1.5 GHz and was released in November 2000. Unlike the Pentium II, Pentium III, and various Celerons, the architecture owed little to the Pentium Pro design, and was new from the ground up. To the surprise of most industry observers, the Pentium 4 did not improve on the old P6 design in either of the normal two key performance measures: integer processing speed or floating-point performance. Instead, it sacrificed per-cycle performance in order to gain two things: very high clockspeeds, and SSE performance. As is traditional with Intels flagship chips, the Pentium 4 also comes in a low-end Celeron version (often referred to as Celeron 4) and a high-end Xeon version intended for SMP configurations. The Pentium 4 performs much less work per cycle than other CPUs (such as the various Athlon or older Pentium III architectures) but the original design objective to sacrifice instructions per clock cycle in order to achieve a greater number of cycles per second. Above are the evolution of microprocessor, I just explain some of it, because there are too many types of microprocessor. Following the microprocessor above, it showing that microprocessors is getting better and run faster year by year. 2.0 Question 2 Memory is one of the most important things that is incorporated into computers, be it computers or PCs. There are various computer memory types installed, depending upon the actual need for functioning and specifications of the system. The computer memory relates to the many devices and components that are responsible for storing data and applications on a temporary or a permanent basis. It enables a person to retain the information that is stored on the computer. Without it, the processor would not be able to find a place which is needed to store the calculations and processes. There are different types of memory in a computer that are assigned a task of storing several kinds of data. Each has certain peculiarities and capacities. Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is a location within the computer system which is responsible for stacking away data on a temporary basis, so that it can be promptly accessed by the processor. The information stored in RAM is typically loaded from the computers hard disk, and includes data related to the operating system and certain applications. When the system is switched off, RAM loses all the stored information. The data remains stored and can be retained only when the system is running. When the RAM gets full, the computer system is more likely to operate at a slow speed. The data can be retrieved in any random order. Generally, there are two types of RAM; namely Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM). When many programs are running on the computer simultaneously, the virtual memory allows the computer to search in RAM for memory portions which havent been utilized lately and copy them onto the hard drive. This action frees up RAM space and enables the system to load different programs. RAM, or Random Access Memory, is volatile. This means that it only holds data while power is present. RAM changes constantly as the system operate, providing the storage for all data required by the operating system and software. Because of the demands made by increasingly powerful operating systems and software, system RAM requirements have accelerated dramatically over time. For instance, at the turn of the millennium a typical computer may have only 128Mb of RAM in total, but in 2007 computers commonly ship with 2Gb of RAM installed, and may include graphics cards with their own additional 512Mb of RAM and more. Read Only Memory (ROM) Read only memories (ROMs) are used in computer systems to provide a permanent storage of program instructions. A read only memory (ROM) structure comprises a matrix of intersecting bit lines and word lines with memory cells at select intersections. A read only memory (ROM) consists of an array of semiconductor devices (diodes, bipolar or field-effect transistors), which interconnect to store an array of binary data. A ROM basically consists of a memory array of programmed data and a decoder to select the data located at a desired address in the memory array. A ROM array of memory cells is defined by a number of transistors generally arranged in a grid pattern having a plurality of rows and columns. Each individual transistor of each memory cell of the ROM array is placed between a column of the series of columns and a voltage bus. A resistive ROM typically includes a planar array of parallel word lines, which is perpendicular to and insulated from a planar array of parallel bit lines . A designated number of the memory cells in the ROM have a resistive, element connecting a node of one word line with a node of one bit line. Each memory cell, consisting of a single transistor per bit of storage, is hardware pre-programmed during the integrated circuit (IC) fabrication process and is capable of maintaining the stored data indefinitely. ROM memory is used to hold and make available data or code that will not be altered after IC manufacture. Data or code is programmed into ROM memory during fabrication. The values stored within the ROM are read (i.e., output) by measuring a sense current flowing through each bit line from the memory cells of successive word lines. Three basic types of ROMs are mask-programmable ROM, erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) and field-programmable ROM (PROM). Cache Cache is a kind of RAM which a computer system can access more responsively than it can in regular RAM. The central processing unit looks up in the cache memory before searching in the central memory storage area to determine the information it requires. This rule out the need for the system to search for information in larger and bigger memory storage areas, which in turn leads to a faster extraction of data. Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there, it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. (For example, the PowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip.) L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip. The main RAM is usually a dynamic RAM (DRAM) chip. In addition to cache memory, one can think of RAM itself as a cache of memory for hard disk storage since all of RAMs contents come from the hard disk initially when you turn your computer on and load the operating system (you are loading it into RAM) and later as you start new applications and access new data. RAM can also contain a special area called a cache that contains the data most recently read in from the hard disk. Computer Hard Drive A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a disk drive, hard drive, or hard disk drive, those stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Todays computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage. A hard disk is really a set of stacked disks, each of which, like phonograph records, has data recorded electromagnetically in concentric circles or tracks on the disk. A head (something like a phonograph arm but in a relatively fixed position) records (writes) or reads the information on the tracks. Two heads, one on each side of a disk, read or write the data as the disk spins. Each read or write operation requires that data be located, which is an operation called a seek. (Data already in a disk cache, however, will be located more quickly.) A hard disk/drive unit comes with a set rotation speed varying from 4500 to 7200 rpm. Disk access time is measured in milliseconds. Although the physical location can be identified with cylinder, track, and sector locations, these are actually mapped to a logical block address (LBA) that works with the larger address range on todays hard disks. Flash Memory Flash memory (sometimes called flash RAM) is a type of constantly-powered non-volatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. It is a variation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) which, unlike flash memory, is erased and rewritten at the byte level, which is slower than flash memory updating. Flash memory is often used to hold control code such as the basic input/output system (BIOS) in a personal computer. When BIOS needs to be changed (rewritten), the flash memory can be written to in block (rather than byte) sizes, making it easy to update. On the other hand, flash memory is not useful as random access memory (RAM) because RAM needs to be addressable at the byte (not the block) level. Flash memory gets its name because the microchip is organized so that a section of memory cells are erased in a single action or flash. The erasure is caused by Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling in which electrons pierce through a thin dielectric to remove an electronic charge from a floating gate associated with each memory cell. Intel offers a form of flash memory that holds two bits (rather than one) in each memory cell, thus doubling the capacity of memory without a corresponding increase in price. Flash memory is used in digital cellular phones, digital cameras, LAN switches, PC Cards for notebook computers, digital set-up boxes, embedded controllers, and other devices. These are just the common and main computer memory types which facilitate memory and data storage. However, there are many subtypes which are sorted out according to the memory-related functionalities they perform and the requirements they serve. 4.0 Conclusion In the assignment, I have completed it by myself and I was doing research in internet, reference books and some of the notes that giving by lecturer. In question, I was explaining the evolution of the microprocessor, from the 1st generation to Pentium 4. I was choosing some of the microprocessors randomly and explain it with detail. Through the question, I know the microprocessors are getting better year by year. In question 2, I was requested to compare the various types of memories. So I have explained and compare in my question 2. For example: RAM, ROM, Hard drive, cache and so on. I learn a lot of knowledge through the assignment. It will be helpful for my examination.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Have you ever had or witnessed someone with Eczema? Well it is not fun having or experiencing this skin disease. Eczema is a chronic skin disorder that cannot be cured and causes the skin to become itchy, red, and dry, but it can be treated by dieting, home remedies, medications, and therapies. People coping with this disease try many forms of these treatments and even try to come up with some of their own treatments. Dealing with eczema can be a lifelong process for people who have it. Having Eczema, many things can cause flare ups including foods. Foods such as eggs can cause flares in younger children. Ã¢â¬Å"Avoiding eggs, fish, peanuts, and soy may help some people reduce flaresÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ehrlich 1). Dairy products, wheat, corn tomatoes, and citrus such as lemons and oranges can cause allergic reactions in the skin. Ã¢â¬Å"Eat less saturated fats (meats, especially poultry, and dairy, refined foods, and sugar. These foods contributed to inflammation in the body.Ã¢â¬ (Ehrlich 2). Beneficial foods to help with Eczema would be your fatty acids that can be essential. Ã¢â¬Å"In one study, people taking fish oil equal to 1.8 g of EPA (one of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil) had significant reduction in symptoms of eczema after 12 weeks.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Ehrlich 2). Other fatty acids containing oils that can help are evening primrose oil, which helps in reducing the itch of eczema, and borage oil, which helps as an anti-inflammatory; both have gamma linoleic acid containing omega-6 fatty acid. Eating salubrious can help reduce the effects of eczema on the body.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ so eating a healthy diet may help reduce inflammation and allergic reaction.Ã¢â¬ (Ehrlich 2). Having more fresh vegetables and whole grains are better for you than preserved foods. Adding he... ...f home remedies and some people even come up with their own. Medications and therapies are available for people with eczema just asked a doctor about them or to provide information about them. Eczema is a chronic skin and causes the skin to become itchy, red, and dry, but it can be treated by dieting, home remedies, medications, and therapies. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Eczema: What You Should Know." 01 05 2007 . Ehrlich, Steven D." Eczema." 20 09 2009 . Health, National Institutes of. "Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis". 01 02 2011 . M., B. "Eczema" Brooke Brockman. 01 2012. Vorvick, Linda J. "Atopic Eczema." 10 10 2010 .
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Although the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) runs one of the safest air transportation systems in the whole world, it is foreseeing an aviation problem caused by increasing passenger numbers and consequently, more crowded skies (U.S. Government Accountability Office [GAO], 2007).Ã The number of passengers is expected to reach 1 billion per year 8 years from now.FAA (2007) shows concern that if it does not take action, there will be far greater delays than what is being experienced right now, leading to economic losses which could amount to $22 billion.Ã That is why the agency is starting to institute transformations in its system to address this key issue.One of these is the transition from the currently-used system to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Ã¢â¬â a step that promises to prevent gridlock in the skies.One of the critical components of NextGen is ADS-B, short for Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast, which is considere d to be the Ã¢â¬Å"backbone of the NextGen systemÃ¢â¬ and utilizes GPS satellite signals to provide both pilots and air traffic control stations with more precise information to enable a more efficient and safer use of the skies (FAA, 2007).How Does ADS-B Work?Unlike radar which involves transmitting electromagnetic pulses and bouncing them off airborne targets and then interpreting reflected signals, ADS-B works by relying on satellite-based GPS system in order to determine the aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s exact position as well as a host of other parameters such as the aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s speed, route, heading, altitude and flight number (Ã¢â¬Å"ADS-BÃ¢â¬ , 2007; Ã¢â¬Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation SafetyÃ¢â¬ , 2007).These information are broadcasted via a radio transmitter and can be received by other aircrafts, ground stations and ground vehicles that are also equipped with ADS-B (Caisso, 2001).Ã Aircrafts and ground control stations within 150-200 miles of the broadca sting aircraft (orADS-BÃ ground station) receive the information and display it in an easily understandable format in a computer screen.Ã Pilots can view this information on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) while air traffic controllers on the ground can see the ADS-B aircrafts on their regular traffic display screen (Ã¢â¬Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation SafetyÃ¢â¬ , 2007).Users of ADS-B are assured of receiving air traffic information in real-time which means that both the pilot and the controller on the ground can both view the same information at the same time.Benefits of ADS-BOne of the major benefits of ADS-B, as stated earlier, is the ability of both the pilot and the ground station, when both equipped with ADS-B, to view reliable and accurate air traffic information in real time.Ã There will also be less need for aircrafts to continually send and receive signals from ground-based controllers (FAA, 2007).Ã This will lighten the load of air traffic controllers, enabling them to accommodate and serve more aircrafts at a more efficient rate.The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) also supports the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s move to pursue ADS-B in lieu of radar and other surveillance technologies, stating that their members can benefit from ADS-B as it is able to provide graphic weather updates and textual flight advisories (AOPA, 2006).These information were considered to be an expensive add-on to existing aviation technology resulting to its unpopular use in aircrafts (Ã¢â¬Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation SafetyÃ¢â¬ , 2007).Ã Furthermore, AOPA believes that FAA can have enormous savings because ground-based transmitters cost at most $200,000 as opposed to radar systems that cost the government millions of dollars.ADS-BAnother reason why ADS-B is preferable to radar systems is that aside from it being less expensive than radars, ADS-B updates at least once a second compared to radars which can so metimes take as long as 12 seconds (AOPA, 2006; FAA, 2007). ADS-B also has wider coverage and ADS-B ground station can be put in place more easily than radars.Ã In fact, FAAÃ¢â¬â¢s Capstone Program involved equipping airlines and air taxis in Southwest Alaska with the new technology.The region was particularly chosen because most of the ground is frozen for the whole year making a lot of places inaccessible by land (FAA, 2001).Ã Furthermore, remote areas cannot be reached by radars making the place a perfect testing ground for ADS-B technology.Ã Starting in 1999, the program has continued until at present and has even expanded to include two more phases.The use of ADS-B has reduced accidents in the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta Ã¢â¬âa place not reached by conventional radar Ã¢â¬â by 43 percent in 2003-2006 (Stapleton, 2006).Ã The results of the Capstone program proves that ADS-B technology can be used to increase efficiency and safety in aircrafts.The drop in the n umber of accidents in Southwest Alaska can probably be attributed to ADS-BÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to enhance aviation safety by providing pilots with features such as automatic traffic call-outs and warnings of impending arrivals or take-offs in the runway (Ã¢â¬Å"ADS-B Creates a New Standard for Aviation SafetyÃ¢â¬ , 2007).ADS-B, having a range of more than 100 miles, provides the aircraft with a wider margin in which to detect conflict (e.g. an imminent collision).Ã Compared to existing systems, resolution of conflicts can be enacted within a shorter span of time.Disadvantages of ADS-BBenenson (2005) noted a certain disadvantage of ADS-B while flying his Cessna Cardinal, which he equipped with ADS-B UAT (Universal Access Transceiver).Ã It was notADS-BÃ Ã Ã Ã 5really a disadvantage of the technology itself but rather to the lack of ground-based transceivers (GBTs) at present.Ã In order for non-ADS-B aircrafts to be displayed in a CDTI, the ADS-B equipped plane must be within the line of sight of a GBT.Ã The GBT sends traffic information coming from air traffic surveillance sensors, most probably radar.The radar Ã Ã Ã Ã information however is not as accurate as the one received through ADS-B, so the non-ADS-B plane appears in the CDTI distorted.Ã Related to this, pilots who are equipped with the new technology may be over-confident, thinking that he perfectly understands the surrounding traffic, forgetting that only equipped aircraft are able to transmit their position quite clearly (Caisso, 2001).Evans (2006) tackles more serious issues such as the risk of Ã¢â¬Å"spoofingÃ¢â¬ by individuals whose sole intent is to produce as many false ASD-B targets on an air traffic controllerÃ¢â¬â¢s screen.Ã Dick Smith, the former head of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil Aviation Authority, was the first to make public the reality of such a risk.Ã He claimed that spoofing can be done using a laptop, an ADS-B transceiver and a $5 antenna.ADS-B experts in the United States, after performing their own tests, agreed with Smith that spoofing is indeed possible with the new technology.Ã FAA, being aware of such a possibility, are putting the pressure on the bidders for ground stations, which should be able to show their systemÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-spoofing ability.Although ADS-B is seen to be less expensive than radar, airline and aviation companies still think that the new technology is not worth the amount theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to spend to replace existing systems and are holding off buying until the prices drop (Evans, 2006).However, the prices are not likely to go down until there is a greater demand for the technology.Ã ADS-B Program Manager Vincent Capezzuto said that if consumers are not willing to make any investment risks, it will be difficult to follow airspace mandates and delays in the benefits offered by the program could be delayed.ADS-BÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã 6Evans (2006) also tackled the danger of completely relyin g on GPS for aircraft navigation and surveillance.Ã FAA acknowledges that GPS may be prone to interference and of course, failure.Ã When such a situation arises, an ADS-B Ã¢â¬â equipped aircraft will have no means by which to obtain air traffic information.Ã It is therefore critical to come up with a backup system.The Implication of ADS-B in the Aviation IndustryADS-B can be considered a milestone in the aviation industry.Ã Never before has there been a technology that can provide so much air traffic information and a lot of other features with just a single equipment.Ã With the large volume of passengers and greater air traffic expected by FAA in the coming years, ADS-B seems to be a viable (if not the most) answer to this issue.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Enviornmental Logging Problems essays Abolishing Logging Tactics To Save Fish Proves to Be Fatal to Surrounding Economy As most would interpret, densely wooded portions of land and or forests serve not only as a place of feasible ecological balance but also as a realm of majestic tranquility. Other individuals, ones with an opposing viewpoint, view forests as a potential profit baring resource eagerly waiting and standing to be taken. This simple rationale remains just the case some fifty mile outside the city of Seattle Washington on and around the Cedar River Watershed logging site. Recently, acting environmental parties argue that the commercial logging on and around the Cedar River is dramatically impacting the migration and spawning runs of both the Chinook and Coho Salmon populations. Logging industries contest, while obeying the no-cut buffer zone guidelines and following every environmental policy by the book, the economic benefits of continuing operations far outweigh those that call for the region to be transformed into an ecological wilderness preserve. It then becomes a question of access ing what remains more economically and environmentally feasible, both in the present and near future. One of the biggest factors reinforcing the movement to abandon the commercial logging sites around the Cedar River stem from the long-term effects operations have had on the declining Salmon populations. While considering all the cutting and logging restrictions currently enforced, in-stream run-off from commercial harvesting persists to remain the sole proprietor to this ongoing problem. As trees are cut, a small yet suitable amount of natural pollutants are formed. These pollutants, which typically consist of loosened soil and wooded stump particles eventually make their ways through the forests base and into the near by water supply via snow melt and heavy rains. As a result, the water quality and or purity of oxidization is dramatically affect ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Quantify References to Elapsed Time Quantify References to Elapsed Time Quantify References to Elapsed Time By Mark Nichol A writerÃ¢â¬â¢s book-jacket bio mentions that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s been a reporter for fifteen years. An online product review refers to a device having been launched last fall. Your blog relates that you attended a conference the previous month. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with each of these descriptions? They all assume the reader is trapped in temporal stasis. By the time the book comes out, the bioÃ¢â¬â¢s reference to the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure will be outdated. When someone checks it out from a library or picks it up at a used-book store five years later, it will be even more so. The solution? Ã¢â¬Å"Jane Doe has been a reporter since 1996.Ã¢â¬ Anyone researching the product online who comes across the review may miss the small, obscure dateline and assume the device came on the market the previous fall, when it may in fact be years old. The solution? Ã¢â¬Å"The Wacky Widget, launched in fall 2010, still tops the market in quality.Ã¢â¬ Visitors reading your blogÃ¢â¬â¢s archives will wonder why you misidentified the time of year when a well-known conference takes place. The solution? Ã¢â¬Å"I had an interesting experience at the July 2011 OMG conference.Ã¢â¬ None of these errors is serious, but they are all errors, and they are all easily avoided. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Comparative Forms of Adjectives50 Idioms About Roads and PathsThe Difference Between "Phonics" and "Phonetics"
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Globalization and Factors Influence Human Resource Management - Essay Example However, at the same time, the diversity in the HR practices has also been exhibited. The cultural differences among the countries are clearly reflected in the organizational structure and practices, which gives rise to several independent HR management processes. This makes it quite important for the international organizations to adopt cross cultural practices (GPF, 2015). The process of globalization and its impact on the human resource management (HRM) have been discussed in the paper. The factors involving the social, political, legal, economic and cultural aspects that influence the management of cross border business practices have been added. Globalization can be described as a process or a set of processes that leads to integration of international entities leading to exchange of views towards business, culture, technology and national economy (Pieterse, 2015). It is a process by which the world is becoming more interconnected, owing to the cross border trade and adoption of cultural practices. It has allowed the firms to have access to new target customers in different nations, thereby increasing their target customer base (Held et al, 1999). This in turn has also increased the production of goods and services over the decades. The large companies have now been transformed to multinational organizations, as they own multiple subsidiaries in several other nations. It has also made it easier for the firms to conduct their business operations, as they can now leverage the comparative advantage of other countries by outsourcing resources or activities. In terms of the global economy, globalization has helped to improve the economic conditions of several developing countries. However, it has also been argued that globalization in certain cases have led to suppression of local firms in the developing countries (BBC, 2014). Ã
Friday, November 1, 2019
FEA - Assignment Example The results are then used to undertake weight optimisation of the model. The limits of the redesigned model are the face bearing the load, strength of the load and the fixed points which are not alterable. The only changing variables are the geometry and materials used. The model was then analysed in the SimulationXpress Analysis Wizard. The first step in this process was to fix the position of the 4 holes where the bracket will be fastened to the body of the structure. This is carried out in the fixtures section and the faces assigned as fixed geometry as shown in figure 2. This fixes the lower section of the bracket to its location in the machine, structure or component where it will be employed. The external load on the geometry is a force of 1kN and is applied on the region of 750and 50mm from the upper section of the load bearing face. This force does not act on the whole region hence a sketch is created 50mm from the upper section and creating a split line to allow the force to applied on the hatched region of the load bearing face on the drawing. Figure 3 shows the model with the split line created. The simulation results are produced giving the stress, displacement, deformation and the safety factor. Determining the maximum displacement and stress is the key objective at this point. The maximum Von Misses stress is 737.96mPa while the yield stress is 620.422mPa. This shows that the stress experienced is higher than the yield stress and hence failure due to the 1KN load applied. This is shown in figure 5. The results from part A are used to carry out a redesign of the bracket which are then validated with Finite Element Analysis. The main objective of this redesign work is to reduce the weight of the bracket by at least 10% and the deflection should not be more than 10%. In this redesign work, the material was the main focus for reducing the weight of the bracket. The aim was to select a material similar to steel but is lighter in weight. Aluminium